english - practical english grammar

Competitive Exams - English

Practical English Grammar

MCQ
Notes

Commas Part Four


Here is a very important comma rule. Study it, and use it well in your writing.

Use a comma to separate nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses, participial
phrases, and appositives. A nonessential or nonrestrictive element adds
information that is not necessary to the sentence’s basic meaning.

• Nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses

The debate, which was attended by two hundred people, was exciting.
(The fact that two hundred people attended the debate is not
essential to the sentence’s basic meaning.)
ESSENTIAL CLAUSES: (Each underlined clause restricts the italicized
word that it modifies.)

The dress that Mom wore to the dinner last night was a gift from
Dad.

A man who has confidence will go far.
• Nonessential or nonrestrictive participial phrases
My two buddies, posing for their high school reunion photo, have
worked for the government for the past thirty years. (The fact
that these two buddies are posing for their high school reunion
photo is not essential to the sentence’s meaning.)

ESSENTIAL PARTICIPIAL PHRASES: (Each underlined phrase restricts
the italicized word that it modifies.)

These cards left on the table belong to Gino.
The woman hailing the cab is my sister.

• Nonessential or nonrestrictive appositives
Stuart, my best friend, loves to laugh.

ESSENTIAL APPOSITIVE PHRASES: (Each underlined appositive phrase
restricts the italicized word that it modifies.)

Has your music teacher, Mrs. Brennan, given you the assignment?
The address, 1313 Mockingbird Lane, should ring a bell with televi-
sion viewers of that era..

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Notes


Practical English Grammar - Notes
1. compound subjects part two
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2. Quotation Marks Part Three
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3. Italics Hyphens and Brackets
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4. the object of the preposition
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5. the participle and participial phrase
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6. what good writers do
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7. complete and simple predicates
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8. the noun clause
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9. compound subject and compound predicate
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10. the direct object
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11. the verb phrase
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12. the pronoun
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13. the adverb
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14. The nominative case
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15. The possessive case
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16. the gerund and gerund phrase
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17. the adjective clause
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18. the interjection
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19. introducing phrases
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20. the adjective
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21. introducing clauses
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22. Confusing usage words part three
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23. Second Capitalization List
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24. types of sentences by purpose
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25. subject complements predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
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26. types of nouns
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27. the noun adjective pronoun question
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28. Confusing usage words part one
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29. Confusing usage words part six
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30. More subject verb agreement situations
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31. the preposition
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32. The coordinating conjunction
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33. the correlative conjunction
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34. the adverb phrase
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35. Indefinite pronouns and the possessive case
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36. Parentheses Ellipsis Marks and Dashes
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37. the indirect object
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38. the adjective phrase
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39. the verb
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40. sentences fragments and run on sentences
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41. the adverb clause
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42. Confusing usage words part eight
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43. Active and passive voices
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44. Sound a like words Part Two
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45. Commas Part Two
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46. complete and simple subjects
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47. the noun
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48. personal pronouns
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49. irregular verbs part two
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50. the appositive
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