english - practical english grammar

Competitive Exams - English

Practical English Grammar


Commas Part Four

Here is a very important comma rule. Study it, and use it well in your writing.

Use a comma to separate nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses, participial
phrases, and appositives. A nonessential or nonrestrictive element adds
information that is not necessary to the sentence’s basic meaning.

• Nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses

The debate, which was attended by two hundred people, was exciting.
(The fact that two hundred people attended the debate is not
essential to the sentence’s basic meaning.)
ESSENTIAL CLAUSES: (Each underlined clause restricts the italicized
word that it modifies.)

The dress that Mom wore to the dinner last night was a gift from

A man who has confidence will go far.
• Nonessential or nonrestrictive participial phrases
My two buddies, posing for their high school reunion photo, have
worked for the government for the past thirty years. (The fact
that these two buddies are posing for their high school reunion
photo is not essential to the sentence’s meaning.)

ESSENTIAL PARTICIPIAL PHRASES: (Each underlined phrase restricts
the italicized word that it modifies.)

These cards left on the table belong to Gino.
The woman hailing the cab is my sister.

• Nonessential or nonrestrictive appositives
Stuart, my best friend, loves to laugh.

ESSENTIAL APPOSITIVE PHRASES: (Each underlined appositive phrase
restricts the italicized word that it modifies.)

Has your music teacher, Mrs. Brennan, given you the assignment?
The address, 1313 Mockingbird Lane, should ring a bell with televi-
sion viewers of that era..

--- >>>


Practical English Grammar - Notes
1. compound subjects part two
Show Notes
2. Quotation Marks Part Three
Show Notes
3. Italics Hyphens and Brackets
Show Notes
4. the object of the preposition
Show Notes
5. the participle and participial phrase
Show Notes
6. what good writers do
Show Notes
7. complete and simple predicates
Show Notes
8. the noun clause
Show Notes
9. compound subject and compound predicate
Show Notes
10. the direct object
Show Notes
11. the verb phrase
Show Notes
12. the pronoun
Show Notes
13. the adverb
Show Notes
14. The nominative case
Show Notes
15. The possessive case
Show Notes
16. the gerund and gerund phrase
Show Notes
17. the adjective clause
Show Notes
18. the interjection
Show Notes
19. introducing phrases
Show Notes
20. the adjective
Show Notes
21. introducing clauses
Show Notes
22. Confusing usage words part three
Show Notes
23. Second Capitalization List
Show Notes
24. types of sentences by purpose
Show Notes
25. subject complements predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
Show Notes
26. types of nouns
Show Notes
27. the noun adjective pronoun question
Show Notes
28. Confusing usage words part one
Show Notes
29. Confusing usage words part six
Show Notes
30. More subject verb agreement situations
Show Notes
31. the preposition
Show Notes
32. The coordinating conjunction
Show Notes
33. the correlative conjunction
Show Notes
34. the adverb phrase
Show Notes
35. Indefinite pronouns and the possessive case
Show Notes
36. Parentheses Ellipsis Marks and Dashes
Show Notes
37. the indirect object
Show Notes
38. the adjective phrase
Show Notes
39. the verb
Show Notes
40. sentences fragments and run on sentences
Show Notes
41. the adverb clause
Show Notes
42. Confusing usage words part eight
Show Notes
43. Active and passive voices
Show Notes
44. Sound a like words Part Two
Show Notes
45. Commas Part Two
Show Notes
46. complete and simple subjects
Show Notes
47. the noun
Show Notes
48. personal pronouns
Show Notes
49. irregular verbs part two
Show Notes
50. the appositive
Show Notes
General Knowledge Quiz
3001 Bizarre Facts
Elementary English Grammar Test
Standard English Grammar Test
Advanced English Grammar Test
Daily English Quiz
English Test
Grammar Examination
ESL / EFL Test
Grammar Test
Vocabulary Examination
Word Analogy
Vocabulary Flashcards
Idioms Quiz
Quantitative Aptitude Test
iQ Quiz Game
Verbal Reasoning Quiz - Mind Game
English Question Answer
Vocabulary Game 1
Vocabulary Game 2
Scramble Word Game
Common Mistakes
Confusing Words
Basic English Usage
English Grammar
English Phrases
Learn English
Word Game
Interview Questions and Answers
Educational Quiz Games