The Age of Industrialisation


Who were the entrepreneurs or business groups in India during the 19th century ?


(i) Dwarakanath Tagore : He was a leading trader of 3engal. Dwarakanath Tagore accumulated his wealth through China trade, before he turned to industrial investment. He set up six joint stock companies in the 1830s and 40s. Though his enterprises sank in the 19th century, yet he showed way to many of the China traders, who later became successful industrialists.
(ii) Dinshaw Petit : He was a Parsi entrepreneur, and was the founder of the first textile mill in India.
(iii) Jamsetji Nusseruanji Tata : He is generally accepted as the "Father of Indian industry.” He had accumulated his wealth partly from exports to China and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(iv) Seth Hukumchand : Seth Hukumchand was a Marwari businessman, who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1917.
(v) Birlas : The Birias belonged to the Marwari group, who had established a business in cotton dealership.


The Age of Industrialisation

Q 1.

When was the first cotton mill established in Bombay ?

Q 2.

Mention any five restrictions imposed by the British government upon the Indian merchants In the 19th century. [CBSE 2011]

Q 3.

Industrialisation brought a big change in social structure. Do you agree? Justify.

Q 4.

Assess the impact of the American Civil War on the plight of Weavers in India during second half at the 18th century.  [CBSE 2014]

Q 5.

Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.

Q 6.

Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located. How can you say that small-scale production continued to predominate even in the late 20th century ?

Q 7.

Mention the major features of Indian textiles before the age of machine industries.

Q 8.

Which industry was symbol of the new era ?

Q 9.

Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.

Q 10.

What was fly shuttle ?

Q 11.

During the first world war years industrial production in India boomed. Give reason.

Q 12.

What was importance of advertisements in expanding the market during the colonial period ?

Q 13.

What were the benefits enjoyed by the villagers in the proto- industrial system?

Q 14.

Write a brief note on the cotton Industry.

Q 15.

Explain the major features of pre colonial trade and industries.

Q 16.

Explain the impact of the First World War on the Indian industries. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Describe the peculiarities of Indian industrial growth during the First World War. [ICBSE 2010(0)]
How did the World War prove to be a boon to the Indian Industries ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 17.

Who invented the steam engine ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 18.

Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century ?

Q 19.

Why the pre-colonial ports i.e. Surat and Masulipatnam declined by the 1750's ?

Q 20.

‘By I860. Indian weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.' Give reason.

Q 21.

Name the European Managing agencies which controlled the large sector of Indian industries.

Q 22.

Name any four major centres of cotton textile of India during the colonial period.

Q 23.

What was the impact of the First World War on the British industries ?

Q 24.

What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India ?

Q 25.

Why did some Industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Q 26.

What were the problems faced by the textile manufacturers in India in the late 1800s ?

Q 27.

How were machines and technology . glorified in England in the early 20th century through pictures on the cover pages of some books ? [CBSE 2013]

Q 28.

“By the 1860s Indian weavers failed to get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality”. Give reason.

Q 29.

Name any two European Managing Agencies which controlled a large sector of the Indian industries. Describe any  three functions performed by such agencies. (CBSE 2013)

Q 30.

Mention any four features of the proto ¬industrial system. [CBSE Svpt. 2010]
Explain the main features of proto ¬industrialisation. [CBSE 2010 (0)]
What was proto-industrialisation ? Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns ? [CBSE 2012]

Q 31.

The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.’ Explain.  [CBSE 2014]
Explain the miserable conditions of industrial workers in Britain during the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2009 lP]
How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in Britain during the nineteenth century ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2008 (O) Compt.]
Describe the lifestyle of the British workers of the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2010 IO). 2014]
Explain how the condition of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century Europe. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011]

Q 32.

The port of Surat and Hoogly declined by the end of the ISth century.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 33.

What were guilds ?

Q 34.

Who discovered the Spinning Jenny ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 35.

Name any two regions of colonial India which were famous for large-scale industries.

Q 36.

"In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand". Give reason.

Q 37.

”Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760 and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export. Give reasons.

Q 38.

“Under the colonial era the Indian merchants were discriminated and space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited’. Justify.

Q 39.

Who was a jobber ?

Q 40.

Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located during the colonial period.

Q 41.

Explain the impact of industrialisation on
(a) Women
(b) Children
(c) Do you think child labour is still a major problem? Suggest any two ways to check child labour.

Q 42.

What was the Swadeshi movement?

Q 43.

How do Cloth Merchants function?

Q 44.

Why did the peasants agree to accept advances made by the merchants to produce goods for them in Europe during the 17th and the 18th centuries* ? Explain three reasons. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008]
How were new merchant groups in Europe able to spread their business in the countryside before the Industrial Revolution ? Explain.
Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.
[CBSE 2013]

Q 45.

Explain any five causes of industrial revolution in England. [CBSE 2013.2014]

Q 46.

Historians now have come to increasingly recognise that the typical worker in the mid- 19th century was, not a machine operator, but the traditional craftsperson and a labourer.’ Justify by giving examples. [CBSE 2009 ID)]
Why do historians agree that the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer ? [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]

Q 47.

What steps were taken by the East India Company to contiol the market of cotton and silk goods ? [CBSE 2009 (D)]
The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in ruination of the Indian weavers. Support the statement with suitable examples.  [CBSE 2012]

Q 48.

Who were the entrepreneurs or business groups in India during the 19th century ?

Q 49.

Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
How did the British manufacturers attempt to take over the Indian market with the help of advertisements ? Explain with three examples. [CBSE 200S (D). 2014]
“Consumers are created through advertisement.” Support the statement with three suitable examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 50.

Industrialisation was a mixed blessing.’ Explain by giving examples. [CBSE 2014]