The Age of Industrialisation


Why the production of cotton industry boomed in the late 19th century ?
How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry ? Explain. [CBSE 2008]


(i) New inventions : A series of inventions in the eighteenth century simplified each step of the production process (carding, twisting, spinning, and rolling).
(ii) Increase in output : The new inventions helped in increasing the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. (iii) Improvement in Quality : Along ‘with quantity, there was improvement in quality also The new invention made possible the production of stronger threads and yam.
(iv) Creation of cotton mill : It was Richard .Arkwright who created the cotton mill. Mow. the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill Within the mill, all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
(v) All under single roof : This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do so when production was in the countryside.


The Age of Industrialisation

Q 1.

Mention any five restrictions imposed by the British government upon the Indian merchants In the 19th century. [CBSE 2011]

Q 2.

Mention the major features of Indian textiles before the age of machine industries.

Q 3.

When was the first cotton mill established in Bombay ?

Q 4.

During the first world war years industrial production in India boomed. Give reason.

Q 5.

Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located. How can you say that small-scale production continued to predominate even in the late 20th century ?

Q 6.

The port of Surat and Hoogly declined by the end of the ISth century.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 7.

Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
How did the British manufacturers attempt to take over the Indian market with the help of advertisements ? Explain with three examples. [CBSE 200S (D). 2014]
“Consumers are created through advertisement.” Support the statement with three suitable examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 8.

Which industry was symbol of the new era ?

Q 9.

Explain the impact of industrialisation on
(a) Women
(b) Children
(c) Do you think child labour is still a major problem? Suggest any two ways to check child labour.

Q 10.

Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.

Q 11.

Who invented the steam engine ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 12.

"In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand". Give reason.

Q 13.

Why there were clashes between weavers and gomasthas ?

Q 14.

“Under the colonial era the Indian merchants were discriminated and space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited’. Justify.

Q 15.

Who was a jobber ?

Q 16.

How the Indian and British manufacturers tried to expand their market ?

Q 17.

Industrialisation brought a big change in social structure. Do you agree? Justify.

Q 18.

Assess the impact of the American Civil War on the plight of Weavers in India during second half at the 18th century.  [CBSE 2014]

Q 19.

Write a brief note on the cotton Industry.

Q 20.

How were machines and technology . glorified in England in the early 20th century through pictures on the cover pages of some books ? [CBSE 2013]

Q 21.

“By the 1860s Indian weavers failed to get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality”. Give reason.

Q 22.

Who were the entrepreneurs or business groups in India during the 19th century ?

Q 23.

Explain the impact of the First World War on the Indian industries. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Describe the peculiarities of Indian industrial growth during the First World War. [ICBSE 2010(0)]
How did the World War prove to be a boon to the Indian Industries ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 24.

The introduction of which new technology in England angered women ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 25.

Which pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]

Q 26.

Why the pre-colonial ports i.e. Surat and Masulipatnam declined by the 1750's ?

Q 27.

Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.

Q 28.

Name the European Managing agencies which controlled the large sector of Indian industries.

Q 29.

What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India ?

Q 30.

Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located during the colonial period.

Q 31.

What technological change helped in improving production of India industry during the 20th century ?

Q 32.

What was importance of advertisements in expanding the market during the colonial period ?

Q 33.

Why did Industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

Q 34.

What were the problems faced by the textile manufacturers in India in the late 1800s ?

Q 35.

What was the Swadeshi movement?

Q 36.

Who created the cotton mill ? How did it help in improving the production ?

Q 37.

Explain the major features of pre colonial trade and industries.

Q 38.

In the 20th century, the handloom cloth production expanded steadily, i.e.. almost trebling between 1900 and 1940.’ Give reasons.
What led to expansion In handloom craft production between 1900 and 1940 ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 39.

Why was East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during the 1760 ? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2013]

Q 40.

Why did the peasants agree to accept advances made by the merchants to produce goods for them in Europe during the 17th and the 18th centuries* ? Explain three reasons. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008]
How were new merchant groups in Europe able to spread their business in the countryside before the Industrial Revolution ? Explain.
Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.
[CBSE 2013]

Q 41.

Historians now have come to increasingly recognise that the typical worker in the mid- 19th century was, not a machine operator, but the traditional craftsperson and a labourer.’ Justify by giving examples. [CBSE 2009 ID)]
Why do historians agree that the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer ? [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]

Q 42.

The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.’ Explain.  [CBSE 2014]
Explain the miserable conditions of industrial workers in Britain during the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2009 lP]
How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in Britain during the nineteenth century ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2008 (O) Compt.]
Describe the lifestyle of the British workers of the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2010 IO). 2014]
Explain how the condition of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century Europe. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011]

Q 43.

What steps were taken by the East India Company to contiol the market of cotton and silk goods ? [CBSE 2009 (D)]
The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in ruination of the Indian weavers. Support the statement with suitable examples.  [CBSE 2012]

Q 44.

How did it change after the First World War ? [CBSE 2013]

Q 45.

Give reasons why the handloom weavers in India survived the onslaught of the machine made textiles of Manchester ?  [CBSE Sept. 2010]
How did small scale industries survive in India despite of Industrialisation ?  [CBSE 2013]

Q 46.

What were guilds ?

Q 47.

Who discovered the Spinning Jenny ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 48.

Name any two regions of colonial India which were famous for large-scale industries.

Q 49.

Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century ?

Q 50.

Name any three pre-colonial ports of India.