Class 10 - History
The Age of Industrialisation
Why did some industrialists in the nineteenth century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
(i) Expensive new technology: New technologies and machines were expensive, so the pioducers and the industrialists were cautious about using them.
(ii) Costlier repair : The machines often
broke down and the repair was costly.
(iii) Less effective : They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
(iv) Availability of cheap workers : Poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs. So the supply of workers was more than the demand. Therefore, workers were available at low wages.
(v) Uniform machine-made goods: A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
In the mid-nineteenth century. Britain, for instance. 500 varieties of hammers were produced, and 15 kinds of axes. These required human skill, not mechanical technology.
Questions and Answers
Mention any five restrictions imposed by the British government upon the Indian merchants In the 19th century. [CBSE 2011]
Industrialisation brought a big change in social structure. Do you agree? Justify.
How did it change after the First World War ? [CBSE 2013]
Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
How did the British manufacturers attempt to take over the Indian market with the help of advertisements ? Explain with three examples. [CBSE 200S (D). 2014]
“Consumers are created through advertisement.” Support the statement with three suitable examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Industrialisation was a mixed blessing.’ Explain by giving examples. [CBSE 2014]
What is proto-industrialisation ?
Name any three pre-colonial ports of India.
What technological change helped in improving production of India industry during the 20th century ?
Explain the impact of industrialisation on
(c) Do you think child labour is still a major problem? Suggest any two ways to check child labour.
How do Cloth Merchants function?
Write a brief note on the Spinning Jenny.
Why did the peasants agree to accept advances made by the merchants to produce goods for them in Europe during the 17th and the 18th centuries* ? Explain three reasons. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008]
How were new merchant groups in Europe able to spread their business in the countryside before the Industrial Revolution ? Explain.
Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.
Explain any five causes of industrial revolution in England. [CBSE 2013.2014]
Why the production of cotton industry boomed in the late 19th century ?
How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry ? Explain. [CBSE 2008]
Explain the impact of the First World War on the Indian industries. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Describe the peculiarities of Indian industrial growth during the First World War. [ICBSE 2010(0)]
How did the World War prove to be a boon to the Indian Industries ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
What were guilds ?
The introduction of which new technology in England angered women ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Name the goods from India Which dominated the international market before the age of machine industries.
Who was a jobber ?
What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India ?
Explain what is meant by proto-Industrialisation.
Discuss the plight of the Indian weavers with the advent of the East India company.
What was the Swadeshi movement?
What is meant by proto-industrialisation ? How did it affect the rural peasants and artisans ? [CBSE 2012]
How did the poor peasants and artisans benefit during the proto-industrialisation phase? [CBSE 2011]
Who created the cotton mill ? How did it help in improving the production ?
What was the impact of colonisation of India on the Indian traders and merchants ?
In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, the merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside.' Give reasons.
Explain any three major problems faced by the new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the Industrial Revolution. [CBSE 2008 (D) Sept. 2012]
What is meant by proto-industrialisation ? Why was it successful in the countryside in England in the 17th century ? [CBSE Sept. 2008. 2011. 2012]
Throw light on production during the proto-industrialisation phase in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with an example. [CBSF. Sept. 2010]
Why were most of the producers reluctant to use the new technology ? Explain by giving examples.
Why did industrialists not want to get rid of hand labour once machines were introduced? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
"The modem industrialisation could not marginalise the traditional industries in England”. Justify the statement with any four suitable arguments. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over machines during the 19’1, century ? Explain any five reasons. [CBSE Sept. 2012. 2013]
The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.’ Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Explain the miserable conditions of industrial workers in Britain during the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2009 lP]
How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in Britain during the nineteenth century ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2008 (O) Compt.]
Describe the lifestyle of the British workers of the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2010 IO). 2014]
Explain how the condition of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century Europe. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011]
What steps were taken by the East India Company to contiol the market of cotton and silk goods ? [CBSE 2009 (D)]
The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in ruination of the Indian weavers. Support the statement with suitable examples. [CBSE 2012]
By the beginning of the 19th century, there was a long decline of textile exports from India.’ Explain by giving reasons. [CBSE 2008]
Explain three reasons for the decline of Indian textile industry by the end of 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Who were the entrepreneurs or business groups in India during the 19th century ?
Explain the role of Indian merchants and bankers in the network of export trade.
What role did the Indian merchants play in the growth of textile industries before 1750 ? Explain any three points. [CBSE 2011]
How was proto-industrialisation different from factory production ?
Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century ?
Why women workers attacked the spinning Jenny a machine which was introduced in Britain ?
Why the pre-colonial ports i.e. Surat and Masulipatnam declined by the 1750's ?
Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.
‘By I860. Indian weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.' Give reason.
Name the European Managing agencies which controlled the large sector of Indian industries.
When was the first cotton mill established in Bombay ?
Name any four entrepreneurs of India who set factories during colonial period.
During the first world war years industrial production in India boomed. Give reason.
What was importance of advertisements in expanding the market during the colonial period ?
When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud."What was the message ?
Mention any three social causes of the clashes between Gomasthas and Villagers. [CBSE 2014]
Assess the impact of the American Civil War on the plight of Weavers in India during second half at the 18th century. [CBSE 2014]
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
What were the benefits enjoyed by the villagers in the proto- industrial system.
Write a brief note on the East India company.