Print Culture and the Modern World


How was die print used to spread the religious texts by various communities ? Explain by giving examples.  [CBSE 2010 (F)]
What was the main fear of the ‘Ulamas' ? State any two steps taken by the ‘Ulamas’ to defend their religion ? [CBSE 2013]
How did religious communities in India make use of printing technology to spread their ideas ? Explain. [CBSE-2012]


(A) Print and the Muslims :
(i) Ulemas and the print : In North India, the Ulemas, i.e., the religious heads of Muslims were deeply worried about the collapse of the Muslim dynasties. They feared that the colonial rulers would encourage conversion, and would change the Muslim personal laws. To counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses which published Persian and Urdu translations of the holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts.
(ii) Deoband Schools : The Deoband Seminary which was founded in 1867, published many fatwas making Muslim readers aware of the code of conduct to be followed in their everyday lives, and explained the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
(iii) Various Muslim Sects : All through the nineteenth century, a number of Muslim sects and seminaries appeared, each with a different interpretation of faith. Each was keen on enlarging its followers and countering the influence of its opponents. The Urdu print helped them conduct these battles in public.
(B) Print and the Hindus :
Among Hindus, too, print encouraged the readings of religious texts, especially in the vernacular languages.
(i) The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas came out from Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1810.
(ii) In the mid-nineteenth century, cheap lithographic editions flooded the North Indian markets.
(iii) From the 1880s, the Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay published many religious texts in vernacular languages,
(iv) The printed text was cheap, land portable. These could be easily carried by the people at any place and time. They could also be read out to large groups of illiterate men and women.
(v) Religious texts and books started reaching a very wide circle of people, encouraging debates and controversies within and among different religions.


Print Culture and the Modern World

Q 1.

Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.

Q 2.

Who was Johann Gutenberg ? Explain his role in the history of printing. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Who invented the printing press ? How did he develop the print technology ? [CBSE 2009 (F)]

Q 3.

In which way did the early printed books closely resemble the manuscripts? Explain.
[CBSE 2013]
Give three ways in which early printed books closely resembled manuscripts. [CBSE 2011]

Q 4.

What were the features of the new books which were produced in Europe after the invention of the Gutenberg's press ?  [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 5.

How did the oral culture enter print and how was the printed material transmitted orally ? Explain with suitable examples.  [CBSE 2008 (F), Sept. 2012]
How did the printers manage to attract the people, largely illiterate, towards, printed books ? [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 6.

When and by whom was hand printing technology introduced in Japan ? (CBSE 2014)

Q 7.

Name the first Weekly that appeared in India. Who bought it out ? (CBSE 2014)

Q 8.

Who wrote Gulamgiri ? (CBSE 2014)

Q 9.

What did the spread of print culture in the nineteenth century India mean to :

Q 10.

Why did some people fear the effect of the easily available printed books ? Choose one example from Europe and one from India. [CBSE Sept. 2011]
Explain the role played by print in bringing about a division in the Roman Catholic Church. [CBSE Sept. 2011]
Explain the role played by print in the spreading of Protestant Reformation. [CBSE 2012, 2013]

Q 11.

Explain how the print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]

Q 12.

What was the attitude of people in India in the nineteenth century towards women reading? How did women respond to this?
[CBSE 2011]
How did the practice of reading and writing increase among women in India in the 19th century. Support your answer with the help of examples. [CBSE 2013]

Q 13.

The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion and a force that will sweep despotism away.'

Q 14.

Why were the printed books popular even among illiterate people ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012]

Q 15.

Write short notes to show what you know about:
a) The Gutenberg Press
b) Erasmus's idea of the printed book
c) The Vernacular Press Act
c) The Vernacular Press Act

Q 16.

Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?

Q 17.

How did China remain a major producer of printed materials for a long time ? [CBSE 2013]
"The imperial state in China, was the major producer of printed material.” Support this statement with examples.  [CBSE 2013. 2012. 2014]

Q 18.

When was print technology introduced in Japan?

Q 19.

How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?

Q 20.

"Oral culture and print culture were complimentary to each other”. Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments. [CBSE 2013]

Q 21.

Name the countries where the earliest kind of print technology was developed.

Q 22.

Who were scribes ?

Q 23.

Who said "Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one ? ] [CBSE 2010. 11, 12]

Q 24.

Name two scholars whose writings inspired French people.

Q 25.

Name any two women novelist of the 19th century.

Q 26.

Who invented power driven cylindrical press ? What were its advantages ?

Q 27.

Name an Act which was passed by the British government to keep a regular track of the vernacular newspapers.

Q 28.

Give reasons for the following :
(a) Martin Luther was in favour of print, and spoke out in praise of it.
(b) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century.
(c) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for the liberty of speech, liberty of the press and freedom of association.

Q 29.

Why did some people in the eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Assess the impact of print revolution on the European society. [CBSE 2013]

Q 30.

Analyse the impact of print revolution on religion. [CJBS £ 2012]

Q 31.

What was an accordion book"? Describe any two features of hand printing in China ?

Q 32.

What did the spread of print culture in 19th century mean to the Reformers ?

Q 33.

Who was Marco Polo ? What was his contribution to print culture ? [CBSE 2013]

Q 34.

Explain the common conviction of people in the mid-18th century about the books and print culture, [CBSE 2013]

Q 35.

Print popularised the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers.' Explain. [CBSE 2014]
How did ideas about science, reason and rationality find their way into popular literature in the 18th century Europe ?  [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 36.

How did the ideas of scientists and philosophers become more accessible to common people after the beginning of print revolution in Europe ? [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2012]

Q 37.

Who was Marco Polo?

Q 38.

How did the print media affect the women in India?

Q 39.

What medium was used for writing ancient Indian scriptures?

Q 40.

Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.

Q 41.

Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century.' Explain by giving examples.  [CBSE Sept. 2012, 2013]
Explain the role of press in shaping the Indian society in the 19th century.
How did print introduce debate and discussion ? Write three points. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
"Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy."Support this statement with examples. [CBSE 2013]

Q 42.

Describe the issue of caste as taken by the novelists in India. [CBSE 2013]

Q 43.

What is calligraphy ?

Q 44.

Who was the major producer of printed material in China ? For what purpose this material was used ?

Q 45.

Which material was used to print pictures in Japan?

Q 46.

What were ballads ? (CBSE 2014)

Q 47.

Why manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life ?

Q 48.

What was Protestant Reformation ?

Q 49.

What was the basic objective of Ninety Five Theses ?

Q 50.

Name any four languages in which Indian manuscript was prepared before the age of print.