Biology

Biotechnology and its Applications

Question:

Find out from internet what is golden rice.

Answer:

Golden rice is transgenic rice having gene coding for vitamin A synthesis enzyme. Golden rice was developed by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, rich in vitamin A (beta carotene). The rice grains are golden yellow in colour due to colour it gets from the beta carotene.

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Biotechnology and its Applications

Q 1.

Many proteins are secreted in their inactive form. This is also hue of many toxic proteins produced by micro organisms. Explain how the mechanism is useful for the organism producing the toxin.

Q 2.

Gene therapy is an attempt to correct a genetic defect by providing a normal gene into the individual. By this’the normal function can be restored. An alternate method would be to provide the gene product (protein/enzyme) known as enzyme replacement therapy, which would also restore the function. Which in your opinion is a better option? Give reason for your answer.

Q 3.

Explain with the help of one example how genetically modified plants can:
(a) Reduce usage of chemical pesticides .
(b) Enhance nutritional value of food crops

Q 4.

Transgenic animals are the animals in which a foreign gene is expressed. Such animals can be used to study the fundamental biological process, phenomenon as well as for producing products useful for mankind. Give one example for each type.

Q 5.

Explain with the help of one example how genetically modified plants can:
(a) Reduce usage of chemical pesticides .
(b) Enhance nutritional value of food crops

Q 6.

Why has the Indian Parliament cleared the second amendment of the country's patents bill?

Q 7.

Gene expression can be controlled with the help of RNA. Explain the method with an example.

Q 8.

Name the first transgenic cow. Which gene was introduced in this cow?

Q 9.

Expand GMO. How is it different from a hybrid?

Q 10.

What is gene therapy? Illustrate using the example of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.

Q 11.

Highlight five areas where biotechnology has influenced our lives.

Q 12.

Define transgenic animals. Explain in detail any four areas where they can be utilised.

Q 13.

Does our blood have proteases and nucleases?

Q 14.

Give the full form of ELISA. Which disease can be detected using it? Discuss the principle underlying the test.

Q 15.

Differentiate between diagnostics and therapeutics. Give one example and for each category.

Q 16.

For which variety of Indian rice, the patent was filed by a USA Company?

Q 17.

Consult internet andflnd out howto makeorally activ&protein pharmaceutical. What is the major problem to be encountered?

Q 18.

Ignoring our traditional knowledge can we prove costly in the area of biological patenting. Justify.

Q 19.

What are Cry proteins? Name an organism that produce it. How has man exploited this protein to his benefit?

Q 20.

PCR is a useful tool for early diagnosis of an infectious disease. Elaborate.

Q 21.

A patient is suffering from ADA deficiency. Can he be cured. How?

Q 22.

Gene expression can be controlled with the help of RNA. Explain the method with an example.

Q 23.

How is a mature, functional insulin hormone different from its prohormone form?

Q 24.

With respect to understanding diseases,’discuss the importance of transgenic animal models.

Q 25.

Why is it that the line of treatment for a genetic disease is different from infectious diseases?

Q 26.

What are the various advantages of using genetically modified plants to increase the overall yield of the crop?

Q 27.

List the advantages of recombinant insulin.

Q 28.

What is a recombinant DNA vaccine? Give two examples.

Q 29.

Write a short note on biopiracy highlighting the exploitation of developing countries by the developed countries.

Q 30.

Bt cotton is resistant to pest, such as lepidopteron, dipterans and coleopterans. Is Bt cotton also resistant to other pests as well?

Q 31.

Can a disease be detected before its symptoms appear? Explain the principle involved.

Q 32.

Highlight any four areas where genetic modification of plants has been useful.

Q 33.

What is meant by the term bio-pesticide? Name and explain the mode of action of a popular bio-pesticide.

Q 34.

Ignoring our traditional knowledge can we prove costly in the area of biological patenting. Justify.

Q 35.

Find out from internet what is golden rice.

Q 36.

In view of the current food crisis, it is said, that we need another green revolution. Highlight the major limitations of the earlier green revolution.

Q 37.

Who was the first patient who was given gene therapy? Why was the given treatment recurrent in nature?

Q 38.

While creating genetically modified organisms, genetic barriers are not respected. How can this be dangerous in the long run?

Q 39.

Discuss the advantages of GMO.

Q 40.

Name the five key tools for accomplishing the tasks of recombinant DNA technology. Also mention the functions of each tool.

Q 41.

Discuss briefly how a probe is used in molecular diagnostics.

Q 42.

How was Insulin obtained before the advent of rDNA technology? What were the problems encountered?

Q 43.

When a foreign DNA is introduced into an organism, how is it maintained in the host and how is it transferred to the progeny of the organism?

Q 44.

What is GEAC and what are its objectives?

Q 45.

ELISA technique is based on the principles of antigen-antibody interaction. Can this techique be used in the molecular diagnosis of a genetic disorder, such as phenyketonuria?

Q 46.

Digrammatically represent the experimental steps in cloning and expressing an human gene (say the gene for growth hormone) into a bacterium like E. coli ?

Q 47.

Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of production of genetically modified crops.

Q 48.

Give any two reasons why the patent on Basmati should not have gone to an American Company.

Q 49.

Taking examples under each category, discuss upstream and downstream processing.

Q 50.

Define Antigen and Antibody. Name any two diagnostic kits based upon them.