How Do Organisms Reproduce?


List two advantages of vegetative  reproduction practised in case of an orange plant.


Two advantages of practising vegetative reproduction in orange plants are:
(i) The oranges produced are similar in size and shape.
(ii) Many oranges do not produce viable seeds and hence, vegetative method is good alternative.


How Do Organisms Reproduce?

Q 1.

Write any two differences between binary fission and multiple fission in a tabular form as observed in cells of organisms.

Q 2.

What are the different methods of contraception?

Q 3.

(a) Name the parts labelled A, B, C, D and E.
(b) Where do the following functions occur?
(i) Production of an egg
(ii) Fertilisation
(iii) Implantation of zygote.
(c) What happens to the lining of uterus:
(i) before release of a fertilised egg?
(ii) if no fertilisation occurs?

Q 4.

What is regeneration? State a reason why a more complex organism cannot give rise to new individuals through this method.

Q 5.

Define the term puberty. List two  changes observed in girls at the time of puberty.

Q 6.

How is the process Of pollination different from fertilization ?

Q 7.

What is the role of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland ?

Q 8.

Which of the following is not a pan Of the female reproductive system in human beings ?
(a) Ovary
(b) Uterus
(c) Vas deferens
(d) Fallopian tube

Q 9.

List and explain in brief three methods  of contraception.

Q 10.

What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?

Q 11.

Why does menstruation occur?

Q 12.

State the method used for growing rose plants.

Q 13.

(a) In the human body what is the role of
(i) seminal vesicles, and (ii) prostate gland?
(b) List two functions performed by testis in human beings.

Q 14.

Describe in brief the role of (i) testis (ii) seminal vesicle, (iii) vas deferens, (iv) ureter and (v) prostate gland in human male reproductive system.

Q 15.

State in brief the changes that take place in a fertilised egg (zygote) till birth of the child in the human female reproductive system. What happens to the egg when it is not fertilised?

Q 16.

Define the terms unisexual and bisexual giving one example of each.

Q 17.

How does growing embryo get nutrition from the mother’s blood?

Q 18.

Name the largest cell present in the human body.

Q 19.

List any three differences between pollination and fertilisation.

Q 20.

What does HIV stand for? Is AIDS an infectious disease? List any four modes of spreading AIDS.

Q 21.

State one genetically different feature between sperms and eggs of humans. What is its consequence?

Q 22.

List two advantages of vegetative  reproduction practised in case of an orange plant.

Q 23.

How does the embryo get nourishment inside the Mother’s body?

Q 24.

What are the functions performed by the testes in human beings?

Q 25.

Differentiate between ‘self-pollination’ and ‘cross-pollination’. Describe double fertilisation in plants.

Q 26.

Expand AIDS. List any four methods of prevention (control) of AIDS.

Q 27.

How does reproduction help in providing stability to populations Of species?

Q 28.

(a) Draw a diagram showing germination of pollen on stigma of a flower.
(b) Label pollen grain, male germ- cells, pollen tube and female germ-cell in the above diagram.
(c) How is zygote formed?

Q 29.

What is reproduction? What are its two types? Which one of the two confers new characteristics on the offsprings and how?

Q 30.

Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual?

Q 31.

How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores?

Q 32.

a) List any four reasons for adopting contraceptive methods.
(b) If a woman is using Copper-T, will it help in protecting her from sexually transmitted diseases? Why?  

Q 33.

(a) Explain the terms:
(i) Implantation (ii) Placenta
(b) What is the average duration of human pregnancy?

Q 34.

(a) Explain the role of placenta in the development of human embryo.
(b) Give example of two bacterial and two viral sexually transmitted diseases. Name the most effective contraceptive which prevents spread of such diseases.

Q 35.

Draw a diagram of a human female reproductive system and label the part
(i) that produces egg
(ii) where fusion of egg and sperm take place
(iii) where zygote is implanted
What happens to human egg when it is not fertilised?

Q 36.

Name the two types of germ-cells present in human beings. How do they structurally differ from each other? Give two differences.

Q 37.

Draw a longitudinal section of a flower and label the following parts:
(i) Part that produces pollen grain.
(ii)Part that transfers male gametes to the female gametes.
(iii) Part that is sticky to trap the pollen grain.
(iv) Part that develops into a fruit.

Q 38.

With the help of suitable diagrams, explain the various steps of budding in Hydra.

Q 39.

What is the effect of DNA copying which is not perfectly accurate on the reproduction process?

Q 40.

List any four modes of asexual reproduction.

Q 41.

What could be the reasons for adopting contraceptive methods?

Q 42.

Explain vegetative propagation with the help of two examples. List two advantages of vegetative propagation.

Q 43.

Mention the mode of reproduction used by
(a) Amoeba (b) Planaria.

Q 44.

Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction?

Q 45.

How are the modes for reproduction different in unicellular and multicellular organisms ?

Q 46.

Name one sexually transmitted disease each caused due to bacterial infection and viral infection. How can these be prevented?

Q 47.

State what type of method is used for growing jasmine plant.

Q 48.

(a) What is fragmentation in organism?
Name a multicell-ular organism which reproduces by this method.
(b) What is regeneration in organism? Describe regeneration in Planaria with the help of a suitable diagram.

Q 49.

List two advantages of practising vegetative propagation in plants. Select two plants raised by this method from the list given below:
Banana, Gram, Pea, Rose, Tomato, Wheat.

Q 50.

Asexual reproduction takes place through budding in :
(a) Amoeba
(b) Yeast
(c) Plasmodium
(d) Leishmania.