Class 6 - Science
List various types of nutrients and write the functions of each.
The various types of nutrients are:
(i) Carbohydrates: They are mainly energy-providing nutrients.
(ii) Fats: They provide energy for the body. They give much more energy than carbohydrates if consumed in same amount.
(iii) Proteins: They are called body-building foods. Proteins help in the formation and repairing of body parts. Skin, hair, muscles, enzymes are made up of proteins.
(iv) Vitamins: Vitamins help in protecting our body against disease. They also protect eyes, bones, teeth and gums.
(v) Minerals: Minerals are essential for proper growth of body and to maintain good health.
Questions and Answers
Components of Food - Questions
Name two energy-providing nutrients.
How can you test presence of proteins in a given food item?
What are the functions of minerals?
Name the major nutrients in our food.
Name the food nutrient indicated by an oily patch on paper.
Name a vitamin which represents a group of vitamins
Name two foods each rich in:
(c) Dietary fibre
Name some food items which provide roughage.
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Name two plant food items which provide proteins.
Name two sources of proteins provided by animals.
Name a vitamin that is not present in milk.
What are carbohydrates?
Write two sources of Vitamin B.
Write test for detecting, presence of fat.
Name two sources of Vitamin A.
Write two sources of Vitamin D.
Write test for detecting the presence of starch.
Name the vitamin that our body prepares in the presence of sunlight.
If any food item gives blue-black colour with iodine then which nutrient is present in the food?
Fill in the blanks:
(a) ________ is caused by deficiency of Vitamin D. ,
(b) Deficiency of_________ causes a disease known as beri-beri.
(c) Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease known as________________ .
(d) Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of_______________ in our food.
Name various types of vitamins.
What are nutrients? Name major nutrients.
What is a balanced diet? Write the components of balanced diet.
Tick (/) the statements that are correct, cross (X) those which dire incorrect.
(a) By eating rice alone, we can fulfill nutritional requirement of our body,
(b) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by eating a balanced diet.
(c) Balanced diet for the body should contain a variety of food items.
(d) Meat alone is sufficient to provide all nutrients to the body.
What is the main Function of roughage?
Excess intake of fats is harmful for the body because it causes obesity. Would it be harmful for the body to take too much of proteins or vitamins in the diet?
Name the following:
(a) The nutrients which mainly give energy to our body.
(b) The nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of our body.
(c) A vitamin required for maintaining good eyesight.
(d) A mineral that is required for keeping our bones healthy.
Why should a meal have different food items?
A patient had stunted growth, swelling on face, discolouration of hair and skin disease. Doctor advised him to eat a lot of pulses, grams, egg white, milk etc. What is wrong with the patient? Explain.
Name two food items which provide fats.
Write the functions of water in our body.
Do all foods contain all the required nutrients?
List various types of nutrients and write the functions of each.
Name a nutrient which helps in repairing the damaged body cells.
What are vitamins? Write various kinds of vitamins.
Name two nutrients which protect the body from diseases.
Which type of food is called body-building food?
A small child became very thin and lean and later he became so weak that he could not move. Which nutrients should he eat so as to improve his health?
Name two main types of carbohydrates found in our food.
What are the functions of proteins?
Do all meals consist of the same food items?
Write two sources of Vitamin C.
What are fats? Name some fat-containing substances.
What are deficiency diseases?
Name two substances which provide carbohydrates.
What happens when two or more drops of iodine solution fall on starch substance?
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Hydraulic boat lifts
When inscribing the Canal du Centre boat lifts in Belgium on its World Heritage List in 1998, UNESCO commented that theyrepresented the apogee of the application of engineering technology to the construction of canals. That holds true for each example described here. The boat lifts exemplify the seemingly limitless mechanical ingenuity of the Victorian Age. The Industrial Revolution, first in Britain and then in the rest of Europe and North America, saw the necessarily rapid growth of inland transportation networks. Although they were soon augmented and often replaced by railroads, canals were the main arteries of industry and commerce. Differences in water levels along their length and at their junctions with rivers were normally overcome by building locks. In order to save time, creative engineers developed a hydraulic mechanism known as a boat lift, which could replace several conventional locks. Among the most ingenious devices of the machine age, the boat lift continued to be refined into the early twentieth century. The principle was simple: a boat or barge entered a watertight trough that was raised or lowered by filling or emptying a counterbalancing trough.
It is likely that the first commercial boat lift was built in 1838 on the Grand Western Canal in the English county of Devon. The canal, first suggested in 1768, was intended to link the Bristol Channel on the west coast and the English Channel on the east. Construction did not begin until 1810 and four years later an 11-mile 17.6-kilometer stretch was completed. Extensions were built, and by 1838 the canal reached as far as Taunton in Somerset. A decade later the Great Western Railway linked Bristol and Exeter, and work on the canal was discontinued. But the boat lift served vessels carrying limestone from Tiverton
in Devon. Consisting of a pair of 30-foot-long 9-meter wooden troughs joined by chains, it was capable of raising nearly 10 tons 8.14 tonnes through the 47 feet 14 meters that separated two sections of the canal.
The most important English model for others in Europe was the Anderton Barge Lift, built near the English salt-producing town of Northwich between 1872 and 1875. It lifted barges over 50 feet 15 meters between the Weaver Navigation and the Trent and Mersey Canal. Designed by the engineers Edward Williams and Edwin Clarke, the mechanism comprised two sets of connected hydraulic cylinders and pistons, each supporting a 76-by-15-foot 23-by-4.7-meter boat tank. In order to lift a boat, a little water was released from the lower tank as the then heavier counterbalancing tank moved downward, the hydraulic system was activated to raise the lower tank, boat and all. The process was augmented by a steam-powered hydraulic pump. The mechanism lasted for about thirty years, but corrosion problems in the hydraulic system led to the construction of a replacement albeit incorporating several parts of the original structure between 1906 and 1908. The new lift continued to carry commercial traffic until the mid-1960s and recreational boats until 1982.
Early among the European clones was the lift at Les Fontinettes on the Neuffossee Canal in northern France. Built in 1888 to raise 340-ton 305-tonne canal boats 43 feet 13 meters from the River Aa to the canal, it replaced no fewer than five eighteenth-century locks, dramatically reducing the time needed to negotiate the network of inland waterways linking Calais and Dunkerque with the industrial center of Lille. It was replaced by a single modern lock in 1967.
Proposed in 1879, the 17-mile 27-kilometer Canal du Centre in Belgiums industrial Scheldt-Meuse-Rhiue Delta integrates Europes inland waterways. Because they survive in working condition, four lifts near La Louviere, also based on the Anderton model, are unique among their contemporaries. Each lifts boats through 57 feet 17 meters. The first, with a capacity of 450 tons 407 tonnes, was built around 1889 the remaining 340-ton 305-tonne lifts followed between 1908 and 1917. In 1999, as part of a long-term program to increase the capacity of Belgiums major waterways, a single hydraulic elevator was completed at Strepy-Thieu on a new section of the Canal du Centre. It is capable of moving barges of 1,500 tons 1.370 tonnes deadweight vertically though 243 feet 73 metersthe highest lift in the worldin tanks that weigh almost 9,000 tons 8,150 tonnes.
Because of growing industrialization in the late nineteenth century, Germanys River Ruhr needed a transport network for raw materials and manufactured goods. In 1899 the Dortmund-Ems Canal was built to connect North Sea harbors to the Ruhr region. The Rhine-Herne Canal, completed in 1914, linked the Rhine with Rotterdam and Amsterdam. The two artificial waterways are joined by the 45-foot 13.5-meter Henrichenburg boat lift at Waltrop. Constructed between 1894 and 1899 it was replaced in 1958 1962.
Another early hydraulic lift system was built in the New World: the Peterborough Lift Lock on the Trent-Severn Canal, connecting Lake Ontario with the upper Great Lakes and the West. Completed in 1904 it consisted of two ship liftseach with a mass of 1,900 tons 1,730 tonnes and rising 49 and 65 feet 14.8 and 19.8 meters, respectivelywithin the 4-mile 6.5-kilometer canal, replacing eight conventional locks.