business studies - principles of management

Class 12 - Business Studies

Principles of Management

Q&A
Question:

Define scientific management. State any three of its principles.

Answer:

Scientific management can be defined as knowing exactly what you want from men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.
Scientific management aims at choosing the best. Method to get the maximum output from the workers the principles of scientific management are mainly applicable to the shop-floor level.
Three principles of scientific management are as follows
(i) Science, Not Rule of Thumb When different managers use their own different methods to get the work done it is rule of thumb. Taylor believed that there was only one best method to maximise efficiency. Taylor advised that every organisation should compare the results of different methods, test them again and again and finally select one best method of getting the work done.
(ii) Harmony, Not Discord Managers are an extension of the management and serve as a link between workers and the owners. Workers have to take instructions from the managers and managers have to get the work done through the workers. Oftentimes the relation between them is spoilt which is very harmful for everyone-workers, managers and owners. This class conflict should be replaced by harmony between the two. Both should change their thinking towards each other. Both should give importance to each other. This is known as mental revolution.
(iii) Co-operation, Not Individualism There should be complete co-operation between the labour and the management instead of individualism. This principle is an extension of the principle of ‘Harmony not discord.' The management and the workers should not compete with each other rather co-operate with each other. Management should consider all good suggestions made by the employees which can help in cost reduction. At the same time, workers should never think of going or stickes in order to get their unreasonable demands fulfilled.



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Questions and Answers


Principles of Management - Questions
1.

Explain any four points regarding significance of Principles of management.


Answer
2.

Explain the principle of Scalar Chain' and gang plank.


Answer
3.

Explain the principles of scientific management given by Taylor.


Answer
4.

Explain the following principles of management given by Fayol with examples.
(a) Unity of direction
(b) Equity
(c) Espirit de Corps
(d) Order
(e) Centralisation and decentralisation
(f) Initiative


Answer
5.

Explain the technique of ‘Functional Foremanship’ and the concept of ‘Mental Revolution’ as enunciated by Taylor.


Answer
6.

Discuss the following techniques of scientific work study
(a) Time study
(b) Motion study
(c) Fatigue study
(d) Method study
(e) Simplification and standardisation of work


Answer
7.

Discuss the differences between the contributions of Taylor and Fayol.


Answer
8.

Discuss the relevance of Taylor and Fayol’s contribution in the contemporary business environment.


Answer
9.

Explain these principles in brief.


Answer
10.

What precautions should the company undertake to implement the changes?
Give your answer with regard to each technique separately as enunciated in points 1 through 6 in the case problem.


Answer
11.

What is meant by Fayol’s principle of’esprit de corps'? (Delhi 2011)


Answer
12.

Which principle of management implies that there should be ‘one head and one  plan’ for a group of activities having the same objective?  
(All India 2010)


Answer
13.

Which principle of management states that an employee should receive orders  from one superior only? (Delhi 2010c)


Answer
14.

What does the principle of initiative indicate? (Delhi 2009)


Answer
15.

Why did Fayol introduce the concept of ‘gang plank’ in the principle of ‘scalar  Chain’?       (All India 2009)


Answer
16.

Which principle of management is violated, if a subordinate is asked to receive  orders from two or more superiors? (HOTS; Delhi 2008C)

 


Answer
17.

Name and explain the principle of management according to which a manager should replace ‘I’ with ‘We’ in all his conversation with workers? (HOTS; Delhi 2013)


Answer
18.

Name and explain the principle of management in which workers should be  encouraged to develop and carry out their plans for improvement in the organisation.                     (HOTS; Delhi 2010c)


Answer
19.

Nikita and Salman completed their MBA and started working in a multi-national company at the same level. Both are working hard and are happy with their employers. Salman had the habit of backbiting and wrong reporting about his colleagues to impress his boss. All the employees in the organisation knew about it. At the time of performance appraisal, the performance of Nikita was judged better than Salman.
Even then their boss, Mohammad Sharif decided to promote Salman stating that being a female, Nikita will not be able to handle the complications of a higher post.
(i) Identify and explain the principle of management, which was not followed by this multi-national company.
(ii) Identify the values, which are being ignored quoting the lines from the above para.          (VBQ; All India 2013)


Answer
20.

Explain Fayol’s principles of ‘equity’ and ‘order’ with examples.
(All India 2011)


Answer
21.

Explain the tallowing principles of Fayol with the help of one example  for each:

  • Scalar chain
  • Stability of tenure of personnel (All India 2011)

 


Answer
22.

Explain any two of the following Fayol’s principles of management with examples
(i) Unity of direction                           (ii) Equity
(iii) Esprit de corps                                   (iv) Initiative(All India 2008; Delhi 2008C)


Answer
23.

Explain the following principles:

  • Discipline
  • Harmony, not discord (All India 2008)

 


Answer
24.

How is the Principle of ‘Unity of Command’ useful to management? Explain briefly.


Answer
25.

If an organisation does not provide the right place for physical and human resources in an organisation, which principle is violated? What are the consequences of it?


Answer
26.

What steps should the company management take in relation to the above principles to restore the company to its past glory?


Answer
27.

Explain the following principles of management:

  • Scalar chain
  • Science, not rule of thumb. (Delhi 2008)

 


Answer
28.

Define scientific management. State any three of its principles.


Answer
29.

Telco Ltd is manufacturing files and folders from the old clothes to discourage use  of plastic files and folders. For this, they employ people from nearby villages where very less job opportunities are available. An employee, Harish, designed a plan for the cost reduction but it was not welcomed by the production manager. Another employee gave some suggestion for improvement in design, but it was also not appreciated by the production manager.  

  • State the principle of management described in the above para.
  • Identify any two values that the company wants to communicate to the society.  (Compartment 2014)

 


Answer
30.

Explain the following principles of Fayol with the help of one example of each.

  • Division of work
  • Unity of direction (All India 2011; Delhi 2011c)

 


Answer
31.

Name and explain the principle of management which requires judicious  application of penalties by the management.
(HOTS; All India 2010; Delhi 2010)


Answer
32.

Voltech India Lid is manufacturing LED bulbs to save electricity and running under heavy losses. To revive from the losses, the management thought of shifting the unit to a backward area where labour is available at a low cost. The management also asked the workers to work overtime without any additional payment and promised to increase the wages of the workers after achieving its mission. Within a short period the company started earning profits because both the management and the workers honoured their commitments.    (Compartment 2014)

  • State the principle of management described in the above para.
  • Identify any two values that the company wants to communicate to the society.

Answer
33.

Explain the following principles of Fayol with the help of one example for each

  • Discipline
  • Unity of command        (Delhi 2011c)

Answer
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