Political Science

Rise of Popular Movements


Assess any two  positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.


(i) The Chipko Movement started in early 1973 in the state that is now Uttarakhand. The movement was unique in the sense that it presented a very unusual form of collective action in which men and women from a village of this state were engaged. These villagers protested against the practices of commercial logging that the government had permitted. They used a novel tactic for their protest— that of hugging the trees to prevent them from being cut down. The struggle soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region.
(ii) Women's active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement. The forest contractors of the region usually doubled up as suppliers of alcohol to men. Women held sustained agitations against the habit of alcoholism and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues. The movement achieved a victory when the government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan region for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.


Rise of Popular Movements

Q 1.

"Movement are not only about collective  assertions or only about rallies and protests but something else as well". Justify.

Q 2.

What is meant by non-party movement?

Q 3.

On a political outline map of India locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated.
1 .The state where Anti-Arrack movement started in October 1992.
2. The state where Dalit Panthers Organisation was active.
3. The state related with Chipko movement.
4. The states associated with Narmada Bachao Aandolan.

Q 4.

Mention the two main demands of Bharatiya Kisan Union in 1980s.

Q 5.

Mention any two demands of Bharatiya Kisan Union.

Q 6.

Would you consider the anti-arrack movement as a women's movement? Why?

Q 7.

What was the most novel aspect of Chipko movement?

Q 8.

Highlight any two main demands of Anti ¬arrack movement.

Q 9.

Assess any two  positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.

Q 10.

What was main objective of ˜Dalit Panthers'?

Q 11.

Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite those with necessary correction.
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India's democracy.
(b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.

Q 12.

Where and when was the organisation ‘Dalit Panthers' formed? Describe any three of its activities.

Q 13.

Which of these statements are incorrect: The Chipko Movement
(a) was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
(b) raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
(c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
(d) demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources.

Q 14.

List any four activities conducted by Bharatiya Kisan Union to pressurize the state for accepting its demands.

Q 15.

What was Narmada Bachao Aandolan? What was criticism against it?

Q 16.

Mention any two party based movement.

Q 17.

Who wrote the poem on Dalit? What does the poem signify?

Q 18.

Which two issues were addressed by Dalit Panthers?

Q 19.

Read the passage and answer questions below:
…., nearly all ‘new social movements' have emerged as corrective to new maladies – environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights – none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order.
They are in that way quite different from revolutionar}1- ideologies of the past. But their weakness lies in their
being so heavily fragmented
…a large part of the space occupied by the new social movements seem to be suffering from … various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti-West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc.) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities.
-Rajni Kothari
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements?
(c) If social movements address specific issues, would you say that they are ‘fragmented' or that they are more focused? Give reasons for you answer by giving examples.

Q 20.

In the poem what does the term "Pilgrims of darkness"signify? To whom the poet has referred as the liberator?

Q 21.

Why did the Narmada Bachao Aandolan oppose the dam projects in the Narmada Valley?

Q 22.

The Bharatiya Kisan Union is a leading organisation highlighting the plight of farmers. What were the issues addressed by it in the nineties and to what extent were they successful?

Q 23.

What does the term ˜Dalit Panthers' mean?

Q 24.

What strategies were used by Narmada Bachao Aandolan to put forward its demands?

Q 25.

Why did the cash crop market face on crisis?

Q 26.

What is meant by Chipko movement? When did it start and where? What is the significance of this movement?

Q 27.

Assess any two  positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.

Q 28.

Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers' agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.

Q 29.

What are popular movements?

Q 30.

What was Anti-arrack movement?

Q 31.

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. But then movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
1. What is the importance of popular movements in democracy?
2. How do popular movements help the
3. What factors make the people come together in a particular movement?

Q 32.

What was the main demand of Chipko movement?

Q 33.

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Sardar Sarovar Project is a multipurpose mega-scale dam. Its advocates say that it would benefit huge areas of Gujarat and the three adjoining states in terms of availability of drinking water and water for irrigation, generation of electricity and increase in agricultural production. Many more subsidiary benefits like effective flood and drought control in the region were linked to the success of this dam. In the process of construction of the dam 245 villages from these States were expected to get submerged. It required relocation of around two and a half lakh people from these villages. Issues of relocation and proper rehabilitation of the project- affected people were first raised by local activist groups. It wrns around 1988-89 that the issues crystallised under the banner of the NBA – a loose collective of local voluntary organisations.
1. Why is Sardar Sarovar Project mentioned as multipurpose mega scale dam?
2. Why was it opposed by villagers?
3. Name the organisation which led the movement against this project.
4. What was the main demand of Local Activist Groups?

Q 34.

What issues did the Dalit Panthers address?

Q 35.

The anti-arrack movement in Andhra Pradesh drew the attention of the country to some serious issues. What were these issues?

Q 36.

What was Narmada Bachao Aandolan? What were its main issues? What democratic strategies did it use to put forward its demands?

Q 37.

What are popular movements? Explain any three issues related to women which brought social awareness amongst them.

Q 38.

How does party based movement differ from non-party movement?

Q 39.

What is the Right to Information Act? When was it passed in India?

Q 40.

Which action of the government of India threatened the fish workers' lives in a major way? Which organisation did they form at national level?

Q 41.

Mention any three social movements of India. Explain their main objectives.

Q 42.

Do movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy? Justify your answer with examples.

Q 43.

Identify the reasons which led to the Chipko Movement in U.P. in early 1970s. What was the impact of this movement?

Q 44.

In what ways social movement raised various issues about the model of economic development of India at the time of independence?