Biology

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Question:

What is the difference between n breed and a species? Give an example for each category.

Answer:

A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc., are said to belong to a breed. Hisardale is a new breed of sheep.
A group of individual that is reproductively isolated from other such group is called species. For examples, Panthera leo (lion) and Mangifera indica are different species.

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Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Q 1.

In animal husbandry, if two closely related animals are mated for a few generations, it results in loss of fertility and vigour. Why is this so?

Q 2.

Define the term stress' for plants. Discuss briefly the two types of stress encountered by plants.

Q 3.

Life style diseases are increasing alarmingly in India. We are also dealing with large scale malnutrition in the population. Is there any method by which we can address both of these problems together?

Q 4.

Explain what is meant by biofortification.

Q 5.

Name the improved characteristics of wheat that helped India to achieve green revolution.

Q 6.

Plants raised through tissue cultures are clones of the parent' plant. Discuss the utility of these plants.

Q 7.

Can gamma rays used for crop improvement programmes prove to be harmful for health? Discuss.

Q 8.

Discuss the two main limitations of plant hybridization programme.

Q 9.

Name a man-made cereal. Trace how it was developed and where it is used?

Q 10.

What is protoplast fusion?

Q 11.

Interspecific crosses are rare in nature and intergeneric crosses almost unknown. Why?

Q 12.

Discuss natural selection and artificial selection. What are the implications of the latter on the process of evolution?

Q 13.

Would it be wrong to call plants obtained through micropropagation as clones'? Comment.

Q 14.

What is meant by the term 'breed'? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Q 15.

Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Q 16.

Suggest some of the features of plants that will prevent insect and pest infestation.

Q 17.

(a) The shift from grain to meat diets creates more demands for cereals. Why? (b) A250 kg cow produces 200 g of protein per day but 250 g of Methylophillus methylotrophus can produce 25 tonnes of protein. Name this emerging area of research. Explain its benefits.

Q 18.

Why are proteins synthesised from SpiruJina called single cell proteins?

Q 19.

The term desirable trait' can mean different things for different plants.. Justify the statement with suitable examples.

Q 20.

What is meant by hidden hunger'?

Q 21.

(a) Mutations are beneficial for plant breeding. Taking an example, justify the statement.
(b) Discuss briefly the technology that made us self-sufficient in food production.

Q 22.

It is said, that diseases are spreading faster due to globalisation and increased movement of people. Justify the statement taking the example of H5N1 virus.

Q 23.

Millions of chicken were killed in West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Maharashtra recently, What was the reason?

Q 24.

What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Q 25.

A farmer was facing the problem of low yield from his farm. He was advised to keep a beehive in the vicinity. Why? How would the beehive help in enhancing yield?

Q 26.

In the area of plant breeding, it is important not only to preserve the seeds of the variety being cultivated, but also to preserve all its wild relatives. Explain with a suitable example.

Q 27.

How can we improve the success rate of fertilisation during artificial insemination in animal husbandry programmes?

Q 28.

Is there any relationship between dedifferentiation and the higher degree of success achieved in plant tissue culture experiments?

Q 29.

Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.

Q 30.

Discuss briefly how pure lines are created in animal husbandry.

Q 31.

You are a Botanist working in the area of plant breeding. Describe the various steps that you will undertake to release a new variety.

Q 32.

You are planning to set up a Dairy Farm. Describe the various aspects you would consider before you start the venture.

Q 33.

Why are plants obtained by protoplast culture called somatic hybrids?

Q 34.

Differentiate between pisciculture and aquaculture.

Q 35.

Discuss the importance of testing of new plant varieties in a geographically vast country like India.

Q 36.

If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures  would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?

Q 37.

Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?

Q 38.

What are the duties of a veterinary doctor in management of a poultry farm?

Q 39.

Find out the various components of the medium 12.used for propagation of an explant in vitro are ?

Q 40.

Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.

Q 41.

Give two important contributions of Dr. M. S. Swaminathan.

Q 42.

Explain the concept of the Blue Revolution.

Q 43.

What are the advantages of tissue culture methods over conventional method of plant breeding in crop improvement programmes?

Q 44.

Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Q 45.

The culture medium (nutrient medium) can be referred to as a highly enriched laboratory soil'. Justify the statement.

Q 46.

(a) The shift from grain to meat diets creates more demands for cereals. Why? (b) A250 kg cow produces 200 g of protein per day but 250 g of Methylophillus methylotrophus can produce 25 tonnes of protein. Name this emerging area of research. Explain its benefits.

Q 47.

Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Q 48.

In the area of plant breeding, it is important not only to preserve the seeds of the variety being cultivated, but also to preserve all its wild relatives. Explain with a suitable example.

Q 49.

A person who is allergic to pulses was advised to take a capsule of Spirulina daily. Give the reasons for the advise.

Q 50.

What is aquaculture? Give example of an animal that can be multiplied by aquaculture.