Biology

Plant Kingdom

Question:

Why are bryophytes called the amphibians of the plant kingdom?

Answer:

Bryophytes are also called amphibians of the plant kingdom because these . plants can live in soil but are dependent on water for sexual reproduction.

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Plant Kingdom

Q 1.

Most algal genera show haplontic life style. Name an alga which is
a. Haplo-diplontic
b. Diplontic

Q 2.

Give an example of plants with
a. Haplontic life cycle
b. Diplontic life cycle
c. Haplo-diplontic life cycle

Q 3.

Food is stored as Floridean starch in Rhodophyceae. Mannitol is the reserve food material of which group of algae?

Q 4.

In which plant will you look for mycorrhiza and corolloid roots? Also explain w’hat these terms mean.

Q 5.

Heterospory, i.e. formation of two types of spores—microspores and megaspores is a characteristic feature in the life cycle of a few members of pteridophytes and all spermatophytes. Do you think heterospory has some evolutionary significance in plant kingdom?

Q 6.

How arc the male and female gametophytes of pteridophytes and gymnosperms different from each other?

Q 7.

Why are bryophytes called the amphibians of the plant kingdom?

Q 8.

How far does Selaginella one of the few living members of lycopodiales (pteridophytes) fall short of seed habit?

Q 9.

Mention the ploidyof the following rprotonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a fern; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of a liverwort, and zygote of a fern.

Q 10.

The plant body in higher plants is well differentiated and well developed. Roots are the organs used for the purpose of absorption. What is the equivalent of roots in the less developed lower plants?

Q 11.

Explain briefly thefollowing terms with suitable examples.
(i) Protonema (ii) Antheridium
(iii)Archegonium (iv) Diplontic (v) Sporophyll (vi) Isogamy

Q 12.

The plant body in higher plants is well differentiated and well developed. Roots are the organs used for the purpose of absorption. What is the equivalent of roots in the less developed lower plants?

Q 13.

In bryophytes male and female sex organs are called and .

Q 14.

Draw labelled diagrams of
a. Female and male thallus of a liverwort.
b. Gametophyte and sporophyte of Funaria.
c. Alternation of generation in Angiosperm.

Q 15.

In Bryophytes male and female sex organs are called _______ and __________

Q 16.

What is heterospory? Briefly comment on its significance. Give two examples.

Q 17.

Gametophyte is a dominant phase in the life cycle of a bryophyte. Explain.

Q 18.

Lichen is usually cited as an example of‘symbiosis' in plants where an algal and a fungal species live together for their mutual benefit. Which of the following will happen if algal and fungal partners are separated from each other?
a. Both will survive and grow normally and independent from each other.
b. Both will die.
c. Algal component will survive while the fungal component will die.
d. Fungal component will survive while algal partner will die.
Based on your answer how do you justify this association as symbiosis.

Q 19.

Explain why sexual reproduction in angiosperms is said to take place through double fertilization and triple fusion. Also draw a labelled diagram of embryo sac to explain the phenomena.

Q 20.

What is the basis of classification of algae?

Q 21.

Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms.

Q 22.

The heterosporous pteridophytes show certain characteristics, which are precursor to the seed habit in gymnosperms. Explain.

Q 23.

Lichen is usually cited as an example of ‘symbiosis’ in plants where an algal and a fungal species live together for their mutual benefit. Which of the following will happen if algal and fungal partners are separated from each other?
(a).Both will survive and grow normally and independent from each other.
(b).Both will die
(c).Algal component will survive while the fungal component will die.
(d).Fungal component will survive while algal partner will die.

Q 24.

When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?

Q 25.

The male and female reproductive organs of several pteridophytes and gymnosperms are comparable to floral structures of angiosperms. Make an attempt to compare the various reproductive parts of pteridophytes and gymnosperms with reproductive structures of angiosperms

Q 26.

How are the male and female gametophytes of pteridophytes and gymnosperms different from each other?

Q 27.

The heterosporous pteridophytes show certain characteristics, which are precursor to the seed habit in gymnosperms. Explain.

Q 28.

Heterospory i.e., formation of two types of spores – microspores and megaspores is a characteristic feature in the life cycle of a few members of pteridophytes and all spermatophytes. Do you think heterospory has some evolutionary significance in Plant Kingdom?

Q 29.

Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.

Q 30.

Gametophyte is a dominant phase in the life cycle of a bryophyte. Explain.

Q 31.

Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds, then why are they classified separately?

Q 32.

Explain why sexual reproduction in angiosperms is said to take place through double fertilisation and triple fusion. Also draw a labelled diagram of embryo sac to explain the phenomena.

Q 33.

Each plant or group of plants has some phylogenetic significance in relation to evolution: Cycas, one of the few living members of gymnosperms is called as the ‘relic of past'. Can you establish a phylogenetic relationship of Cycas with any other group of plants that justifies the above statement?

Q 34.

Most algal genera show haplontic life style. Name an alga which is
(a) Haplo-diplontic (b) Diplontic

Q 35.

Write a note on economic importance of algae and gymnosperms.

Q 36.

Each plant or group of plants has some phylogenetic significance in relation to evolution: Cycas, one of the few living members of gymnosperms is called as the ‘relic of past’. Can you establish a phylogenetic relationship of Cycas with any other group of plants that justifies the above statement?

Q 37.

Match the following (Column I with Column II).
Column I                                                             Column II
(a)Chlamydomonas                                       (i)Moss
(b)Cycas                                                             (ii)Pteridophyte
(c) Selagmella                                                 (iii)Algae
(d) Sphagnum                                                 (iv)Gymnosperm

Q 38.

With the help of a schematic diagram describe the haplo-diplontic life cycle pattern of a plant group.

Q 39.

How far does Selaginella one of the few living members of Lycopodiales (Pteridophytes) fall short of seed habit.

Q 40.

Comment on the life cycle and nature of a fern prothallus.

Q 41.

Why are bryophytes called the amphibians of the Plant Kingdom?

Q 42.

Food is stored as floridean starch in Rhodophyceae. Mannitol is the reserve food material of which group of algae?

Q 43.

Give an example of plants with
(a) Haplontic life cycle
(b) Diplontic life cycle
(c) Haplo-diplontic life cycle

Q 44.

Comment on the life cycle and nature of a fern prothallus.

Q 45.

In which plant will you look for mycorrhiza and corolloid roots? Also explain what these terms mean.

Q 46.

The male and female reproductive organs of several pteridophytes and gymnosperms are comparable to floral structures of angiosperms. Make an attempt to compare the various reproductive parts of pteridophytes and gymnosperms with reproductive structures of angiosperms.

Q 47.

How would you distinguish monocots from dicots?

Q 48.

With the help of a schematic diagram, describe the haplo–diptontic life cycle pattern of a plant group.

Q 49.

Differentiate between the following:
(i) Red algae and brown algae
(ii)Homosporous and heterosporous pteridophytes
(iii)Liverworts and moss
(iv)Syngamy and triple fusion.

Q 50.

Draw labelled diagrams of
(a) Female and male thallus of a liverwort.
(b) Gametophyte and sporophyte of Funaria.
(c) Alternation of generation in Angiosperm.