Biology

Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Question:

What is the amount of O2 supplied to tissues through every 100 mL of oxygenated blood under normal physiological conditions?

Answer:

5 mL of O2 is the amount of O2 supplied to tissues through every 100 mL of oxygenated blood under normal physiological conditions.

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Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Q 1.

What happens to the respiratory process in a man going up a hill?

Q 2.

For completion of respiration process, write the given steps in sequential manner.
(a) Diffusion of gases (O2 and CO2) across alveolar membrane.
(b) Transport of gases by blood.
(c) Utilisation of O2 by the cells for catabolic reactions and resultant release of CO2 .
(d) Pulmonary ventilation by which atmos-pheric air is drawn in and C02 rich alveolar air is released out.
(e) Diffusion of 02 and CO2 between blood and tissues.

Q 3.

What will be the p02 and pCO2  in the atmospheric air compared to those in the alveolar air?
(i) pO2  lesser, pCO2 higher
(ii) pO2  higher, pCO2 lesser
(iii) pO2  higher, pCO2 higher
(iv) pO2  lesser, pCO2 lesser

Q 4.

What is tidal volume? Find out the tidal volume (approximate value) for a healthy human in an hour.

Q 5.

State the different modes of CO2 transport in blood.

Q 6.

What is the site of gaseous exchange in an insect?

Q 7.

Diffusion of gases occurs in the alveolar region only and not in the other parts of respiratory system. Why?

Q 8.

Name the primary site of exchange of gases in our body?

Q 9.

How is respiration regulated?

Q 10.

Complete the missing terms
(a) Inspiratory Capacity (1C)=_____+IRV
(b)_____= TV + ERV
(c) Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) = ERV +_____

Q 11.

Match the following and mark the correct options
Animal                                      Respiratory Organ
A.Earthworm                          (i)Moist cuticle
B.Aquatic Arthropods           (ii)Gills
C.Fishes                                   (iii)Lungs
D.Birds/Reptiles                    (iv)Trachea
(a) A-(ii), B-(i), C-(iv), D-(iii)
(b) A-(i), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(iii)
(c) A-(i), B-(iii), C-(ii), D-(iv)
(d) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iv), D-(iii)

Q 12.

Have you heard about hypoxia? Try to gather information about it, and discuss with your friends.

Q 13.

Arrange the following terms based on their volumes in an ascending order:
(a) Tidal Volume (TV)
(b) Residual Volume (RV)
(c) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (1RV)
(d) Expiratory Capacity (EC).

Q 14.

Explain the process of inspiration under normal conditions.

Q 15.

Name the organs of respiration in the following organisms:
(a) Flatworm ____________
(b) Birds ____________
(c) Frog____________
(d) Cockroach____________

Q 16.

Define the following terms.
(a) Tidal volume
(b) Residual volume
(c) Asthma

Q 17.

State the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal breathing.

Q 18.

Explain the role of neural system in regulation of respiration.

Q 19.

A major percentage (97%) of O2 is transported by RBCs in the blood. How is the remaining percentage (3%) of O2 transported?

Q 20.

What are the major transport mechanisms for CO2? Explain.

Q 21.

Name the important parts involved in creating a pressure gradient between lungs and the atmosphere during normal respiration.

Q 22.

Define vital capacity. What is its significance?

Q 23.

Compared to O2 , diffusion rate of CO2 through the diffusion membrane, unit difference in partial pressure is much higher. Explain.

Q 24.

Cigarette smoking causes emphysema. Give reason.

Q 25.

What is the effect of pCO2on oxygen transport?

Q 26.

The oxygen – haemoglobin dissociation curve will show a right shift in case of ,
(a) High pCO2 (b) High pO2
(c) Low pCO2 (d) Less H+ concentration.

Q 27.

What is the amount of O2 supplied to tissues through every 100 mL of oxygenated blood under normal physiological conditions?

Q 28.

Arrange the following terms based on their volumes in an ascending order:
(a) Tidal Volume (TV)
(b) Residual Volume (RV)
(c) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (1RV)
(d) Expiratory Capacity (EC).

Q 29.

Define oxygen dissociation curve. Can you suggest any reason for its sigmoidal pattern?

Q 30.

Explain the mechanism of breathing with neat labelled sketches.

Q 31.

Explain the transport of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and tissue with diagram.

Q 32.

A fluid filled double membranous layer surrounds the lungs. Name it and mention its important function.

Q 33.

Distinguish between
(a) IRV and ERV
(b) Inspiratory capacity and expiratory capacity.
(c) Vital capacity and total lung capacity.

Q 34.

Differentiate between
(a) Inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume
(b) Vital capacity and total lung capacity
(c) Emphysema and occupational respiratory disorder.