Biology

Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Question:

How is the study of plant anatomy useful to us?

Answer:

Study of internal structures of plants is called plant anatomy. Study of plant anatomy is useful:
-for solving taxonomic problems.
-for knowing homology and analogy of various plant groups.
-to differentiate the superior and inferior, standard and substandard or specified and unspecified woods.
-in establishing purity and correct identity of plant parts in pharmacognosy (science connected with sources, characteristics and possible medicinal uses).
-in knowing the structural peculiarities of different groups of plants.

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Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Q 1.

What constitutes the cambial ring?

Q 2.

Arrange the following in the sequence you would find them in a plant starting from the periphery – phellem, phellogen, phelloderm.

Q 3.

Is Pinus an evergreen tree? Comment.

Q 4.

Protoxylem is the first formed xylem. If the protoxylem lies next to phloem what kind of arrangement of xylem would you call it?

Q 5.

Trunks of some of the aged tree species appear to be composed of several fused trunks. Is it a physiological or anatomical abnormality? Explain in detail.

Q 6.

If one debarks a tree, what parts of the plant is being removed?

Q 7.

What do hard wood and soft wood stand for?

Q 8.

Plants require waterfortheir survival. But when watered excessively, plants die. Discuss.

Q 9.

Cut a transverse section of young stem of a plant from your school garden and observe it under the microscope. How would you ascertain whether it is a monocot stem or a dicot stem ? Give reasons.

Q 10.

Protoxylem is the first formed xylem. If the protoxylem lies next to phloem what kind of arrangement of xylem would you call it?

Q 11.

Palm is a monocotyledonous plant, yet it increases in girth. Why and how?

Q 12.

Name the three basic tissue systems in the flowering plants. Give the tissue names under each system.

Q 13.

How is the study of plant anatomy useful to us?

Q 14.

Protoxylem is the first formed xylem. If the protoxylem lies next to phloem what kind of arrangement of xylem would you call it?

Q 15.

Why are xylem and phloem called complex tissues?

Q 16.

Match the following and choose the correct option from below.

A. Cuticle (i) Guard cells
B. Bulliform cells (ii) Single layer
C. Stomata (iii) Waxy layer
D. Epidermis (iv) Empty colourless cell

Options:
(a) A—(iii), B—(iv), C—(i), D—(ii)
(b) A—(i), B—(ii), C—(iii), D—(iv)
(c) A—(iii), B—(ii), C—(iv), D—(i)
(d) A—(iii), B—(ii), C—(i), D—(iv)

Q 17.

What is present on the surface of the leaves which helps the plant prevent loss of water but is absent in roots?

Q 18.

While eating peach or pear it is usually seen that some stone like structures get entangled in the teeth, what are these stone like structures called?

Q 19.

Is Pinus an evergreen tree? Comment.

Q 20.

Assume that a pencil box held in your hand, represents a plant cell. In how many possible planes can it be cut? Indicate these cuts with the help of line drawings.

Q 21.

Explain the process of secondary growth in the stems of woody angiosperms with the help of schematic diagrams. What is its significance?

Q 22.

What is the epidermal cell modification in plants which prevents water loss?

Q 23.

Wha do hardwood and softwood stand for?

Q 24.

What are the characteristic differences found in the vascular tissue of gymnosperms and angiosperms?

Q 25.

Match the following and choose the correct option from below.

A. Meristem (i) Photosynthesis, storage
B. Parenchyma (ii) Mechanical support
C. Collenchyma (iii) Actively dividing cells
D. Sclerenchyma (iv) Stomata
E. Epidermal tissue (v) Sclereids

Options:
(a) A—(i), B—(iii), C—(v), D—(ii), E—(iv)
(b) A—(iii), B—(i), C—(ii), D—(v), E—(iv)
(c) A—(ii), B—(iv), C—(v), D—(i), E—(iii)
(d) A—(v), B—(iv), C—(iii), D—(ii), E—(i)

 

Q 26.

What are the cells that make the leaves curl in plants during water stress?

Q 27.

A transverse section of the trunk of a tree shows concentric rings which are known as growth rings. How are these rings formed? What is the significance of these rings?

Q 28.

What is the difference between lenticels and stomata?

Q 29.

Give one basic functional difference between phellogen and phelloderm.

Q 30.

The lawn grass (Cyandon dactylon) needs to be mowed frequently to prevent its overgrowth. Which tissue is responsible for its rapid growth?

Q 31.

Deciduous plants shed their leaves during hot summer or in autumn. This process of shedding of leaves is called abscission. Apart from physiological changes what anatomical mechanism is involved in the abscission of leaves.

Q 32.

What is,the function of phloem parenchyma?

Q 33.

While eating peach or pear it is usually seen that some stone like structures get entangled in the teeth, what are these stone like structures called?

Q 34.

Arrange the following in the sequence you would find them in a plant starting from the periphery – phellem, phellogen, phelloderm.

Q 35.

What are the characteristic differences found in the vascular tissue of gymnosperms and angiosperms?

Q 36.

State the location and function of different types of meristems.

Q 37.

The transverse section of a plant material shows the following anatomical features – (a) the vascular bundles are conjoint, scattered and surrounded by a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath, (b) phloem parenchyma is absent. What will you identify it as?

Q 38.

Is Pinus an evergreen tree? Comment.

Q 39.

Below is a list of plant fibres. From which part of the plant these are obtained?
(a) Coir
(b) Hemp
(c) Cotton
(d) Jute

Q 40.

Trunks of some of the aged tree species appear to be composed of several fused trunks. Is it a physiological or anatomical abnormality? Explain in detail.

Q 41.

What part of the plant would show the following?
a. Radial vascular bundle
b. Polyarch xylem
c. Well developed pith

Q 42.

What is the function of phloem parenchyma?

Q 43.

Assume that a pencil box held in your hand, represents a plant cell. In how many possible planes can it be cut? Indicate these cuts with the help of line drawings.

Q 44.

Give one basic functional difference between phellogen and phelloderm.

Q 45.

What is the commercial source of cork? How is it formed in the plant?

Q 46.

What is the commercial source of cork? How is it formed in the plant?

Q 47.

Point out the differences in the anatomy of, leaf of peepal (Ficus religiosa) and maize {Zea mays). Draw the diagrams and label the differences.

Q 48.

The lawn grass (Cynodon dactylon) needs to be mowed frequently to prevent its overgrowth. Which tissue is responsible for its rapid growth?

Q 49.

If one debarks a tree, what parts of the plant is being removed?

Q 50.

What is present on the surface of the leaves which helps the plant prevent loss of water but is absent in roots?