Economics

Development

Question:

Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Answer:

For example, let us consider two countries, A and B. For the sake of simplicity, we have assumed that they have only five citizens each. Based on data given in Table, calculate the average income for both the countries. Perhaps some of us may like to live in country B if we are assured of being its fifth citizen but if it is a lottery that decides our citizenship number then perhaps most of us will prefer to live in country A. Even though both the countries have identical average income, country A is preferred because it has more equitable distribution. In this country people are neither very rich nor extremely poor. On the other hand most citizens in country B are poor and one person is extremely rich. Hence, while average income is useful for comparison it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

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Development

Q 1.

Discuss the disparities in literacy rates in India.

Q 2.

What contributes to the human development ?

Q 3.

Discuss the disparities in literacy rates in India.

Q 4.

Increase in total income of a country may or may not lead to greater welfare of the masses. on this.

Q 5.

Give one example of environmental degradation.

Q 6.

Which attribute is considered important for comparing different countries? Does it provide the whole picture?

Q 7.

In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Q 8.

What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 9.

The high salary jobs are not always the most satisfying option.

Q 10.

Expansion of retail chains owned by big industrialists.

Q 11.

Give one example of environmental degradation.

Q 12.

How is average income calculated?

Q 13.

How can development be made sustainable? Illustrate with examples from everyday life.

Q 14.

What should be the main criteria of development?

Q 15.

What contributes to the human development ?

Q 16.

What is infant mortality rate ? Suggest two measures to keep the infant mortality rate low. [CBSE 2013, 14]
Or
What is the meaning of ˜Infant Mortality Rate ' (IMR) ? Give two main reasons for low IMR in Kerala. [CBSE 2010]

Q 17.

What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

Q 18.

"Average income is an important criterion for development."Explain.

Q 19.

What is the significance of Human Development Index ? [CBSE 2013]

Q 20.

Give suggestions for ensuring a better distribution of existing water resources within the country.

Q 21.

Money alone cannot provide all that makes life worth living. Discuss this statement.

Q 22.

What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 23.

Distinguish between developed and underdeveloped countries.

Q 24.

Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Q 25.

(i) What is development ? Mention any two features of development.
(ii) What is national income ? [CBSE 2009 (D)]  
(iii) What is per capita income? [CBSE Sept. 2011]
Or
Define the term, ‘average income.' [CBSE 2008, 2009 (D)]

Q 26.

What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries ? What are the limitations of this criterion ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Explain the meaning of the term ‘Rich Countries' and ˜Low Income Countries' according to the World Development Report of 2006. What is India's position in this respect ? [CBSE 2013]

Q 27.

Human development is the essence of social development.' Explain.

Q 28.

Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Q 29.

Mention any four characteristics of development. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]

Q 30.

What are the limitations of the per capita income criteria of development ? [CBSE 2014]
Or
What is Per Capita Income ? Can it be regarded as the sole indicator of economic development of a country ? Give four valid arguments to support your answer. [CBSE 2012]

Q 31.

How can development be made sustainable? Illustrate with examples from everyday life.

Q 32.

Describe any three features of developed country. [CBSE 2013, 14]

Q 33.

Why is it that different people have different notions of development?

Q 34.

What should be the main criteria of development?

Q 35.

What may be development for one may not be development for the other.' Explain by giving examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Or
With the help of an example show two groups who may have different notions of development. [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 36.

What should be the developmental goals for developing countries like India?

Q 37.

What is PCI ? Where it is used ?

Q 38.

Besides income, what can be the other attributes to compare economic development? [CBSE 2013, 14]

Q 39.

Define the following terms :
(i) IMR (ii) Literacy Rate (iii) NAR [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]

Q 40.

Why is per capital income considered as an important criterion for development?

Q 41.

Why is per capital income considered as an important criterion for development?

Q 42.

Distinguish between human and economic development.

Q 43.

(i) Mention any two important aspects of our lives other than income. [CBSE 2008 (D)]
(ii) How can we achieve our hopes and possibilities in the present world ? [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008]
(iii) What is ˜Public Distribution System ' (PDS) ? [CBSE Sept. 2011 ] [CBSE2009 (F) Sept. 2010]
(iv) Mention two developmental goals of landless rural labourers. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008]
(iv) Why has Kerala a higher Human Development Index than Punjab in spite of low per capita income ? [CBSE 2009 (F) Sept. 2011]

Q 44.

What are the development goals of the following :
(i) Labourer (ii) Rich farmer (iii) Trader

Q 45.

What is infant mortality rate ? Suggest two measures to keep the infant mortality rate low. [CBSE 2013, 14]
Or
What is the meaning of ˜Infant Mortality Rate ' (IMR) ? Give two main reasons for low IMR in Kerala. [CBSE 2010]

Q 46.

(f) State the criteria used to compare the different countries by the Human Development Report published by the United National Development Programme (UNDP).
(ii) Which is the new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together ?
(iii) What is meant by Human Development ? [CBSE Sept. 2011, 2012]
(iv) What is Sustainable Development ? [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008, 2009 (F), Sept. 2011]
(v) Which organisation measures HDR ? Mention any three major indicators of / HDR. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Q 47.

Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well.' Explain. [CBSE 2010(0), Sept. 2013]