Power Sharing


How is power shared among the different organs of the government ? Explain.
[CBSE 2009 (O)]


(i) Organs of the government: Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of the government. Legislature is responsible for making laws, executive organ is responsible for execution or implementation the laws whereas judiciary is there to provide justice to the people or to solve the disputes.
(ii) Power sharing: In India the Union Parliament, i.e., the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha makes laws whereas various ministers and government officials are responsible for the execution of the laws. These ministers are not independent but they are responsible or answerable to the Parliament or State Assemblies. Similarly, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.


Power Sharing

Q 1.

Why is horizontal distribution of power often referred to as a system of ‘checks and balances' ? Explain. [CSBE 2012]

Q 2.

Explain the vertical division of power by giving examples from India. [CBSE 2013]

Q 3.

State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.  [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Q 4.

Which values you have learnt from the principle of power sharing ?

Q 5.

After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why ? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Thomman – Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
Mattai – Power sharing is suited only for big countries that have regional divisions.
Ousep – Every society needs some form of power sharing even if they are small or do not have social divisions.

Q 6.

Describe with examples the way in which power can be shared among different social and linguistic groups ?  [CBSE 2010]

Q 7.

Give three examples of power sharing in India. Also mention the social/moral value it strengthens.

Q 8.

Read the following passage, and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this.
"We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi, and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. The Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption, and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus the Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy."

Q 9.

How is power shared among the different organs of the government ? Explain.
[CBSE 2009 (O)]

Q 10.

Principle of majoritarianism is against the human values.' Justify.

Q 11.

What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies ? Give an example of each of these.

Q 12.

The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town's schools. He said that the ban would help all non ¬Dutch speakers integrate in this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium's power sharing arrangements ? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

Q 13.

Describe any three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils. How did they struggle for their independence ?  [CBSE 2009 (O), Sept. 2012]

Q 14.

What is majoritarianism ? How has it increased the feelings of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
What were the reasons for the alienation of Sri Lankan Tamils ? What was the effect of this on the country ? [CBSE 2011 ]
Why do the Sri Lankan Tamils feel alienated in spite of their long stay in Sri Lanka ?
What is majoritarianism ? How has it been adopted in Sri Lanka ? [CBSE 2010]