political science - the crisis of democratic order

Class 12 - Political Science

The Crisis of Democratic Order

Q&A
Question:

Describe any four circumstances for proclamation of emergency in 1975.

Answer:

1. Emergence of Indira Gandhi.
2. Power politics became personalised and governmental authority was converted into personalization.
3. Bitter party competition.
4. Tensed relations between the government and judiciary.



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Questions and Answers


The Crisis of Democratic Order - Questions
1.

Who became the symbol of restoration of democracy?


Answer
2.

What factors led to crisis of democratic order in Indian Politics?


Answer
3.

Who organised the first nationwide Satyagraha and Why?


Answer
4.

What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?


Answer
5.

The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?


Answer
6.

What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?


Answer
7.

Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity.
(a) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
(b) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media.
(d) Working of Police and Bureaucracy.


Answer
8.

Mention the Historic decision given by the court in famous Kesavananda Bharati Case.


Answer
9.

What do you mean by Preventive Detention?


Answer
10.

What was Shah Commission of inquiry?
How did government react to it? “


Answer
11.

Evaluate the consequences of declaration of emergency in 1975?


Answer
12.

Why is emergency and period around it known as the period of constitutional crisis? Explain.


Answer
13.

How did emergency of 1975 benefit the Indian democratic set up?


Answer
14.

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
There were many acts of dissent and resistance to the Emergency. Many political workers who were not arrested in the first wave, went ‘underground' and organised protests against the government. Newspapers like the Indian Express and the Statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank spaces where news items had been censored. Magazines like the Seminar and the Mainstream chose to close down rather than submit to censorship. Many journalists were arrested for writing against the Emergency. Many underground newsletters and leaflets were published to bypass censorship. Kannada writer Shivarama Karanth, awarded with Padma Bhushan, and Hindi writer Fanishwarnath Renu, awarded with Padma Shri, returned their awards in protest against the suspension of democracy. By and large, though, such open acts of defiance and resistance were rare.
Questions
1. Why did people began to protest against government?
2. How did newspapers protest against censorship?
3. How did writers protest against the emergency?
4. Which magazines protested against censorship?


Answer
15.

Examine the three consequences of emergency imposed in 1975.


Answer
16.

Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-crisis-democratic-order-3
Question.
1. When did cartoon appear in the newspaper and why?
2. Identify the person behind Indira Gandhi.
3. Identify what does the ˜Political Crisis' stand for. Explain.


Answer
17.

Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-crisis-democratic-order-4
Questions
1. What situation does the picture refer to?
2. Which Commission is represented into the cartoon?
3. Mention some points of this Commission's report.


Answer
18.

State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.


Answer
19.

The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?


Answer
20.

Mention the main reason for the defeat of Congress party in the elections 1977.


Answer
21.

Name the political party which came to power at centre in 1977.


Answer
22.

Who was Charu Majumdar?


Answer
23.

Explain the reasons for students movement of 1974 in Bihar and the role played by Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement.


Answer
24.

Explain any two lessons learnt from emergency imposed in 1975.


Answer
25.

Discuss the role of Jayaprakash Narayan in Bihar movement and national politics.


Answer
26.

Emergency was a Blackmark in Indian History'. Comment.


Answer
27.

In which year fifth general elections to Lok Sabha held?


Answer
28.

Name the president who proclaimed emergency in 1975 in India.


Answer
29.

Describe any two outcomes of Naxalite Movement.


Answer
30.

How far do you agree that the government had misused its emergency powers during 1975-77? Explain.


Answer
31.

Assess any three happenings which were responsible for the downfall of Congress Party in the 1977 elections.
Or
˜The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre'. Examine any six reasons for this change.


Answer
32.

Read the passage and answer the questions below:
"Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National
Congress split into two groups
The Janata Party also went
through major convulsions David
Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy.
”Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Party?


Answer
33.

In January 1974, Students of Gujarat started an agitation against which two major problems?


Answer
34.

Who introduced Twenty Point Programme and Why?


Answer
35.

Mention circumstances to be characterised for imposition of emergency?


Answer
36.

Describe any four circumstances for proclamation of emergency in 1975.


Answer
37.

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Once an emergency is proclaimed, the federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended and al 1 t be powc itc
the hands of the union government. Secondly, the government also gets the power to curtail or restrict all or any of the Fundamental Rights during the emergency. From the wording of the provisions of the Constitution, it is clear that an Emergency is seen as an extra-iordinary condition in which normal democratic politics cannot function. Therefore, special powers are granted to the government.
Questions
1. When was emergency imposed?
2. Who recommended emergency to be imposed and to whom?
3. Mention the implications of emergency.


Answer
38.

Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-crisis-democratic-order-2
Questions
1. What was the slogan of Janata Party to campaign in elections?
2. Identify the person who is sitting on ground holding the slogan.
3. Against which practices Jayaprakash Narayana agitated?


Answer
39.

Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency.
(a) The call for ˜Total Revolution'.
(b) The Railway Strike of 1974
(c) The Naxalite Movement
(d) The Allahabad High Court verdict
(e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report


Answer
40.

In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.


Answer
41.

Examine the legacy of emergency of 1975 in India.


Answer
42.

Analyse any three lessons learnt from the emergency of 1975.


Answer
43.

What is Naxalite movement? Evaluate its role in Indian politics.


Answer
44.

Mention the factors which led Naxalite movement in backward states.


Answer
45.

Why did Congress win in Southern states?


Answer
46.

Explain any three outcomes of Lok Sabha elections of 1977.


Answer
47.

What was the controversy regarding the appointment of the chief justice A.N. Ray in 1973?


Answer
48.

Match the following:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-crisis-democratic-order-1


Answer
49.

Examine any six reasons for the imposition of emergency in India in 1975.  
Or
Analyse any three reasons for imposing emergency on 25 June 1975. Did the government misuse its emergency powers? Give any three arguments in support of answers.


Answer
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