political science - challenges to and restoration of the congress system

Class 12 - Political Science

Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

Q&A
Question:

These election results were called as a ˜Political Earthquake'.4. How can we see re-emergence of Indira Gandhi to power in 1971?

Answer:

Congress (R) under Indira Gandhi had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan which was lacked by its opponents. The ˜Grand Alliance' had only one common i programme ˜Indira Hatao':
1. In contrast to this, Indira Gandhi put forward a positive slogan ˜Garibi Hatao'.
2. By this, she generated a support base among poor, minorities, landless labourers, dalit, women and unemployed youth.
3. Except it, she focused on the growth of public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparity etc.
4. Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and programmes became the part of Indira Gandhi's political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.



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Questions and Answers


Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System - Questions
1.

The results of which, elections were called j "Political Earthquake"?


Answer
2.

When and where was the first non- j Congress state government formed after India's independence?


Answer
3.

Why are the results of 1967 elections in India called Political Earthquake?


Answer
4.

What do you mean by SVD?


Answer
5.

Which theoretical argument did Ram j Manohar Lohia give in defence on non- Congressism?


Answer
6.

Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-challenges-restoration-congress-system-2
Questions
1. What is meant by ‘Keep Right, No Left Turn"?
2. In the picture what does the following stand for:
(а) LD (b) BKS
(c) SSP (d) BKD
3. What is a hung assembly?


Answer
7.

Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-challenges-restoration-congress-system-3
Questions
1. Which year is being referred by cartoon?
2. Who is being commented by the phrase ‘Aya Ram Gaya Ram'?


Answer
8.

These election results were called as a ˜Political Earthquake'.4. How can we see re-emergence of Indira Gandhi to power in 1971?


Answer
9.

Analyse any three major factors which led the popularity of Indira Gandhi's Government in the early 1970s.


Answer
10.

Read the passage and answer the questions below:
“… Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led. … But this … could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology … into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…. During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died
—Sudipta Kaviraj
(a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?
(b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died' in the seventies?
(c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?


Answer
11.

What does ˜Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram' stand for in Indian politics?


Answer
12.

How did Congress face challenge of political succession second time?


Answer
13.

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised the split in the party. The Congress President expelled the Prime Minister from the party; she claimed that her group was the real Congress. By November 1969, the Congress group led by the ˜syndicate' came to be referred to as the Congress (Organisation) and the group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called the Congress (Requisitionists). These two parties were also described as Old Congress and New Congress. Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between socialists and conservatives, between the pro-poor and the pro-rich.
Questions
1. What formalised the split of Congress?
2. Mention two groups created after the split.
3. How did Indira Gandhi project the split?


Answer
14.

Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?
(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the s upport of some other parties.
(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority. Ans. (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.


Answer
15.

Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct? The Grand Alliance …
(а) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
(b) had a clear political and ideological programme.
(c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.


Answer
16.

Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.


Answer
17.

Who represented Congress (O) and Congress (R) after the split of Congress Party?  


Answer
18.

What challenges were faced by India between 1964 to 1966 during Prime- ministership of Lai Bahadur Shastri?


Answer
19.

What do you mean by SVD?


Answer
20.

Why did senior Congress leader support Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri?


Answer
21.

1960s were labelled as the dangerous decade'. Explain.


Answer
22.

1960s were labelled as the dangerous decade'. Explain.


Answer
23.

What does ˜defection' stand for in Indian politics? Highlight any two demerits of this practice?


Answer
24.

Write a short note on:
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(b) Garibi Hatao
(c) Indira Hatao
(d) Grand Alliance


Answer
25.

Examine the grave economic crisis prior to fourth general election of 1967. Assess the electoral verdict also.


Answer
26.

How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings?
(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
(b) Listen to the majority group
(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party


Answer
27.

Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections?  


Answer
28.

What is meant by term ˜Congress Syndicate?


Answer
29.

In 1966, who contested against Indira Gandhi for the post of Prime Minister from among Congress MPs?


Answer
30.

After the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri which two leaders of Congress Party contested against each other to become leader of Congress parliamentary party?


Answer
31.

Name the leaders who gave the following slogans.
1. Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
2. Garibi Hatao


Answer
32.

Why were 1960s, called as the dangerous decade?


Answer
33.

Why did Indira Gandhi government devalue the Indian Rupee in 1967?


Answer
34.

Explain any two reasons for the popularity of Indira Gandhi during 1971 elections.
Or
Analyse any three factors which enhanced popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s.


Answer
35.

Read carefully the passage given below and answer the following questions:
The New Congress had something that its big opponents lacked—it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan. The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one common programme ˜Indira Hatao'. In contrast to this, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan ˜Garibi Hatao'.
Questions
1. Which Congress is being referred to as ˜the New Congress'?
2. Highlight any two steps taken by Indira Gandhi to remove poverty.
3. How far is it justified to call the ˜opposition alliance' as the ˜Grand Alliance'?


Answer
36.

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
But does it mean that the Congress system was restored? What Indira Gandhi had done was not a revival of the old Congress party. In many ways she had re-invented the party. The party occupied a similar position in terms of its popularity as in the past. But it was a different kind of a party. It relied entirely on the popularity of the supreme leader. It had a somewhat weak organisational structure. This
Congress party now did not have many fanctions ,Thus it could not accommodate all kind of options and interests .While it won elections,it depends more on some social groups: the poor, the women,Dalits, Adivasis and the minorities.It was a new congress system by changing the nature of the congress system itself.
Questions
1. Had Indira Gandhi revived Congress?
2. How did Indira Gandhi restore the Congress system?
3. Why did Congress not have all kinds of opinions and interests?


Answer
37.

Examine the three main reasons responsible for the split in Congress during 1969.
Or
Describe the various aspects of presidential election of 1969.


Answer
38.

Which six factors contributed to the popularity of Indira Gandhi's government in the decade of 1970s?


Answer
39.

Study the picture given below and answer the questions
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-challenges-restoration-congress-system-4
Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. Identify the lady in the cartoon and give reason for her pleasure.
3. Identify the person wearing garland in winning position.
4. Who is lying on the ground?


Answer
40.

Whom would you identify with the following slogans/phrases?
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(b) Indira Hatao!
(c) Garibi Hatao!


Answer
41.

State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give
reasons for your answer?
(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
(b) Split within the Congress party.
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
(d) Increasing unity among non ¬Congress parties.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party.


Answer
42.

What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi's Government in the early 1970s?


Answer
43.

What is meant by Grand Alliance?


Answer
44.

What was the status of SVD in the new era of coalition?


Answer
45.

Why was the year 1967 considered a landmark year in India's political and electoral history? Explain.


Answer
46.

What is meant by ˜Privy Purses'? Why did Indira Gandhi insist on abolishing them in 1970?


Answer
47.

What does the term ˜syndicate' mean in the context of the Congress party of the . sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?


Answer
48.

What was the Slogan of Indira Gandhi during the elections of 1971?


Answer
49.

How did the outcome of 1971 elections help in restoration of Congress?


Answer
50.

Match the following:
ncert-solutions-class-12-political-science-challenges-restoration-congress-system-1


Answer
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