biology - neural control and coordination

Class 11 - Biology

Neural Control and Coordination

Q&A
Question:

Compare the following:
(a) Central neural system (CNS) and Peripheral neural system (PNS).
(b) Resting potential and action potential.
(c) Choroid and retina.

Answer:

(a) CNS: It lies along the mid-dorsal axis of the body. It is a hollow, dorsally placed structure and comprises of brain and spinal cord. It is a centre of information processing and control.
PNS: Nerves arising from the central nervous system constitute the peripheral nervous system. It carries information to and from the CNS. It includes spinal nerves and cranial nerves.
(b) Resting potential: Outside the plasma membrane of a nerve fibre is the extracellular fluid which is positively charged with respect to the cell contents inside the plasma membrane. A resting nerve fibre shows a potential difference between inside and outside of this plasma membrane. This difference in the electrical charges across the plasma membrane is called the ‘resting potential’.  A membrane with resting potential across it, is said to be electrically polarized.  Action potential : Action potential is another name of nerve impulse. The contents inside a cell at the excited state becomes positively charged with respect to extracellular fluid outside it. This change in polarity across the plasma membrane is known as an action potential. The membrane with reversed polarity across it is said to be depolarized.
(c) Choroid: Choroid lies adjacent to the sclera and contains numerous blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the other tissues especially of retina. It contains abundant pigment cells and is dark brown in colour.
Retina: It is the neural and sensory layer of the eye ball. It is a very delicate coat and lines the whole of the vascular coat. Its external surface is in contact with the choroid and its internal surface with vitreous humour. It contains ganglion cells, bipolar cells and photoreceptor cells. membranous labyrinth. Membranous labyrinth consists of three semicircular ducts, utricle, saccule and cochlea.



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Questions and Answers


Neural Control and Coordination - Questions
1.

Answer the following.
(a) Which part of the ear determines the pitch ofa sound?
(b) Which part of the human brain is the most developed?
(c) Which part of our central neural system acts as a master clock?


Answer
2.

Explain the following.
(a) Role of Na+ in the generation of action potential.
(b) Mechanism of generation of light-induced impulse in the retina.
(c) Mechanism through which a sound produces a nerve impulse in the inner ear.


Answer
3.

The region of the vertebrate eye, where the optic nerve passes out of the retina, is called the
(a) fovea (b) iris
(c) blind spot (d) optic chiasma
 


Answer
4.

Explain the following.
(a) Role of Na+ in the generation of action potential.
(b) Mechanism of generation of light-induced impulse in the retina.
(c) Mechanism through which a sound produces a nerve impulse in the inner ear.


Answer
5.

Write short notes on the following:
(a) Neural coordination (b) Forebrain
(c) Midbrain                       (d) Hindbrain
(e) Retina                             (f) Ear ossicles
(g) Cochlea                          (h) Organ of Corti
(i) Synapse


Answer
6.

Distinguish between
(a) Afferent neurons and efferent neurons
(b) Impulse conduction in myelinated nerve fibre and unmyelinated nerve fibre
(c) Aqueous humour and vitreous humour
(d) Blind spot and yellow spot
(e) Cranial nerves and spinal nerves


Answer
7.

Explain the following processes:
(a) Polarisation of the membrane of a nerve fibre.
(b) Depolarisation of the membrane of a nerve fibre.
(c) Conduction of a nerve impulse along a nerve fibre.
(d) Transmission of a nerve impulse across a chemical synapse.


Answer
8.

6. Give a brief account of
(a) Mechanism of synaptic transmission.
(b) Mechanism of vision.
(c) Mechanism of hearing.


Answer
9.

Differentiate between
(a) Myelinated and non-myelinated axons
(b) Dendrites and axons
(c) Rods and cones
(d) Thalamus and Hypothalamus
(e) Cerebrum and Cerebellum


Answer
10.

Answer briefly.
(a) How do you perceive the colour of an object?
(b) Which part of our body helps us in maintaining the body balance?
(c) How does the eye regulate the amount of light that falls on the retina?


Answer
11.

Compare the following:
(a) Central neural system (CNS) and Peripheral neural system (PNS).
(b) Resting potential and action potential.
(c) Choroid and retina.


Answer
12.

Draw labelled diagrams of the following:
(a) Neuron (b) Brain
(c) Eye (d) Ear


Answer
13.

Briefly describe the structure of the following:
(a) Brain (b) Eye (c) Ear


Answer
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