Resources and Development


Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?


The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.
Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km. Land use data, however, is available only for 93 per cent of the total area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully. Moreover, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed.
The land under permanent pasture has also decreased. How are we able to feed our huge cattle population on this pastureland and what are the consequences of it? Most of the, other than the current fallow lands are either poor quality or the cost of cultivation of such land is very high. Hence, these lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years and if these are included in the net sown area then the percentage of NSA in India comes to about 54 per cent of the total reporting area. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.
Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest Policy1952). It was considered essential for maintenance of the ecological balance. The livelihood of millions of people who live on the fringes of these forests depends upon it. A part of the land is termed as wasteland and land put to other non-agricultural uses.
Wasteland includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc. Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it has resulted in land degradation. This, in turn, has serious repercussions on society and the environment.



Resources and Development

Q 1.

Give the difference between renewable resources and non-renewable resources with examples.

Q 2.

Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.

Q 3.

What are the factors that determine the use of land?

Q 4.

What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

Q 5.

Give the importance of human beings as an essential component of resource?

Q 6.

Give the two factors that determine soil fertility.

Q 7.

Give a short note on reserves.

Q 8.

Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.

Q 9.

Write a paragraph on resource planning.

Q 10.

Major problem faced due to the indiscriminate use of resources by Man- Discuss.

Q 11.

How can the problem of deforestation be solved?

Q 12.

Give two characteristics of alluvial soil.

Q 13.

What are the problems faced due to mismanagement of resources?

Q 14.

Define Resource.

Q 15.

What is conservation of resources?

Q 16.

What is resource planning?

Q 17.

Is black soil easy to work, in hot climate? Explain.

Q 18.

What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?

Q 19.

What was the root cause for resources depletion at the global level, according to Gandhiji ?

Q 20.

What are the two disturbing features of land – use pattern?

Q 21.

Mention any two methods for reducing fallow land.

Q 22.

Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

Q 23.

Give a brief note on the productivity of alluvial soil.

Q 24.

What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.

Q 25.

Name the five types of land resource.

Q 26.

Write a short note on classiification of resources.

Q 27.

Give a brief note on arid soil.

Q 28.

What was the views of Gandhiji on resource conservation?

Q 29.

What has significantly contributed to land degradation?

Q 30.

What is the classification of alluvial soil on the basis of their age ? Mention their characteristics.